Clinical question: In patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), is dabigatran plus a P2Y12 inhibitor safer than, and as efficacious as, triple therapy with warfarin?
Background: Recent studies have shown that patients on long-term anticoagulation who undergo PCI can be managed on oral anticoagulants and P2Y12 inhibitors with lower bleeding rates than do those who receive triple therapy.
Study design: Randomized, controlled trial.
Setting: 414 sites in 41 countries.
Synopsis: In 2,725 patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI, low-dose (110 mg, twice daily) and high-dose (150 mg, twice daily) dabigatran plus a P2Y12 inhibitor lowered absolute bleeding risk by 11.5% and 5.5%, respectively, compared with triple therapy. Rates of thrombosis, death, and unexpected revascularization as a composite endpoint were noninferior to triple therapy for both dabigatran doses studied. In patients on dabigatran for atrial fibrillation, it is reasonable to continue dabigatran and add a single P2Y12 inhibitor (clopidogrel or ticagrelor) but not aspirin after PCI. In patients at high risk for bleeding complications, it may be reasonable to dose reduce the dabigatran from 150 mg twice daily to 110 mg twice daily before starting antiplatelet therapy, although the study was underpowered to examine this.
Bottom line: In patients with atrial fibrillation undergoing PCI, dabigatran plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor had lower bleeding rates and was noninferior with respect to the risk of thromboembolic events when compared with triple therapy with warfarin.
Citation: Cannon CP et al. Dual antithrombotic therapy with dabigatran after PCI in atrial fibrillation. N Engl J Med. 2017 Oct 19. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1708454.
Dr. Theobald is a hospitalist at the University of Colorado School of Medicine.