Style Guide for Authors

Formatting References and Journal Citations


Lists of authors are treated differently depending on how many authors are included. In all cases, use last name then first initial (and, if present, middle initial). Do not add any periods.

  • If there are three or more authors, use only the first author then “et al.” (Note: There is always a period after “et al.”)
  • If there are only two authors, separate their names with an “and.” Add a period.


“Jane L. Santarpia, Dan Rivera, Veronica Herrera, Michael J. Morwitzer, Harry Creager, and Giovanni W. Santarpia” would become “Santarpia JL et al.”

“Abd-Elsayed A, Karri J.” would become “Abd-Elsayed A and Karri J.”


Use sentence case. That is, the first word is capitalized, but the rest is lowercased (except for proper nouns and the first word after a colon).


“Utility of Substandard Face Mask Options for Health Care Workers During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Review of the Literature” would become “Utility of substandard face mask options for health care workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: A review of the literature.”


We use the PubMed Single Citation Matcher to shorten journal names. Note: PubMed also provides volume number, issue number, page numbers, and doi.


“Annals of Internal Medicine” instead becomes “Ann Intern Med.”

“Journal of Hospital Medicine” instead becomes “J Hosp Med.”

“New England Journal of Medicine” instead becomes “N Engl J Med.”


Year first, three-letter abbreviation for month, and specific date, if given. There is no need to use “Epub ahead of print.”

Example: “February 29, 2020” would instead become “2020 Feb 29.”


These are closed up with issue number in parentheses.

Example: “Vol. 20, Iss. 6” would instead become “20(6).”


Use hyphens (not en dashes, which are longer) to separate numbers. Delete duplicate numbers.

Example: 132–139 would become 132-9.


We generally use a doi (digital object identifier) whenever page numbers are not available. There is no need to use both; we prefer the use of page numbers. Lowercase the term “doi.” Only the date is necessary when using the doi; there is no need for volume/issue numbers.


  • Please include full names, degrees, titles, and institutions (with city and state) for all authors and for anyone quoted or referenced in the article, as well as photos of all authors.
  • If you include any figures, tables, etc., please include a reference in the body text (i.e., for more information, see Table 1) as well as captions for any figures and credit or source lines, if applicable. Please obtain permission to use any images, tables, figures, etc.
  • When submitting headshots, the images should be a minimum of 300 dpi.

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Examples of other references/citations:

Incorrect: Sheree M Smith, Sandra Sonego, Gwenyth R Wallen, Grant Waterer, Allen C Cheng, and Philip Thompson. “Use of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions to Reduce the Transmission of Influenza in Adults: A Systematic Review.” Respirology, August 2015. Volume 20, Issue 6. pp896–903.

Correct: Smith SM et al. Use of non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce the transmission of influenza in adults: A systematic review. Respirology. 2015 Aug;20(6):896‐903.

Incorrect: Sandeep Reddy, Sonia Alla, Simon Coghlan, Paul Cooper. “A Governance Model for the Application of AI Bin Health Care,” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 2019;13(7).

Correct: Reddy S et al. A governance model for the application of AI bin health care. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2019. doi: 10.1093/jamia/ocz192.

Incorrect: Neeltje van Doremalen 1, Trenton Bushmaker 1, Dylan H Morris 2, Myndi G Holbrook 1, Amandine Gamble 3, Brandi N Williamson 1, Azaibi Tamin 4, Jennifer L Harcourt 4, Natalie J Thornburg 4, Susan I Gerber 4, James O Lloyd-Smith 5, Emmie de Wit 6, Vincent J Munster 6, “Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared With SARS-CoV-1.” New England Journal of Medicine. April 16, 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1564-1567. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc2004973. Epub 2020 Mar 17.

Correct: van Doremalen N et al. Aerosol and surface stability of SARS-CoV-2 as compared with SARS-CoV-1.N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 16;382(16):1564-7.

Incorrect: N95/PPE Working Group. Evaluation of Decontamination Techniques for the Reuse of N95 Respirators. 2020;2:1-7. Available from: Decontamination-Techniques.pdf.

Correct: N95/PPE Working Group report. Evaluation of decontamination techniques for the reuse of N95 respirators. 2020 Apr 3;2:1-7.

Incorrect: Brosseau LM. Are Powered Air Purifying Respirators a Solution for Protecting Healthcare Workers from Emerging Aerosol-Transmissible Diseases? Ann Work Expo Heal [Internet]. 2020(PG-1-3):1-3. Available from: abstract/doi/10.1093/annweh/wxaa024/5802550.

Correct: Brosseau LM. Are powered air purifying respirators a solution for protecting healthcare workers from emerging aerosol-transmissible diseases? Ann Work Expo Health. 2020 Apr 30;64(4):339-41.