MIS-C follow-up proves challenging across pediatric hospitals


The discovery of any novel disease or condition means a steep learning curve as physicians must develop protocols for diagnosis, management, and follow-up on the fly in the midst of admitting and treating patients. Medical society task forces and committees often release interim guidance during the learning process, but each institution ultimately has to determine what works for them based on their resources, clinical experience, and patient population.

A pediatrician checks on a patient Geber86/Getty Images

But when the novel condition demands the involvement of multiple different specialties, the challenge of management grows even more complex – as does follow-up after patients are discharged. Such has been the story with multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a complication of COVID-19 that shares some features with Kawasaki disease.

The similarities to Kawasaki provided physicians a place to start in developing appropriate treatment regimens and involved a similar interdisciplinary team from, at the least, cardiology and rheumatology, plus infectious disease since MIS-C results from COVID-19.

“It literally has it in the name – multisystem essentially hints that there are multiple specialties involved, multiple hands in the pot trying to manage the kids, and so each specialty has their own kind of unique role in the patient’s care even on the outpatient side,” said Samina S. Bhumbra, MD, an infectious disease pediatrician at Riley Hospital for Children and assistant professor of clinical pediatrics at Indiana University in Indianapolis. “This isn’t a disease that falls under one specialty.”

Dr. Samina S. Bhumbra, an infectious disease pediatrician at Riley Hospital for Children and assistant professor of clinical pediatrics at Indiana University in Indianapolis

Dr. Samina S. Bhumbra

By July, the American College of Rheumatology had issued interim clinical guidance for management that most children’s hospitals have followed or slightly adapted. But ACR guidelines could not address how each institution should handle outpatient follow-up visits, especially since those visits required, again, at least cardiology and rheumatology if not infectious disease or other specialties as well.

“When their kids are admitted to the hospital, to be told at discharge you have to be followed up by all these specialists is a lot to handle,” Dr. Bhumbra said. But just as it’s difficult for parents to deal with the need to see several different doctors after discharge, it can be difficult at some institutions for physicians to design a follow-up schedule that can accommodate families, especially families who live far from the hospital in the first place.

“Some of our follow-up is disjointed because all of our clinics had never been on the same day just because of staff availability,” Dr. Bhumbra said. “But it can be a 2- to 3-hour drive for some of our patients, depending on how far they’re coming.”

Many of them can’t make that drive more than once in the same month, much less the same week.

“If you have multiple visits, it makes it more likely that they’re not showing up,” said Ryan M. Serrano, MD, a pediatric cardiologist at Riley and assistant professor of pediatrics at Indiana University. Riley used telehealth when possible, especially if families could get labs done near home. But pediatric echocardiograms require technicians who have experience with children, so families need to come to the hospital.

Dr. Ryan M. Serrano, a pediatric cardiologist at Riley Hospital for Children and assistant professor of pediatrics at Indiana University

Dr. Ryan M. Serrano

Children’s hospitals have therefore had to adapt scheduling strategies or develop pediatric specialty clinics to coordinate across the multiple departments and accommodate a complex follow-up regimen that is still evolving as physicians learn more about MIS-C.


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