Background: Previous trials have shown a reduction in composite outcomes if STEMI patients undergo staged PCI of nonculprit lesions discovered incidentally at the time of primary PCI for STEMI. However, no randomized trial has had the power to assess if staged PCI of nonculprit lesions reduces cardiovascular death or MI.
Study design: Prospective randomized clinical trial.
Setting: PCI-capable centers in 31 countries.
Synopsis: In this study, if multivessel disease was identified during primary PCI for STEMI, patients were randomized to either culprit-lesion-only PCI or complete revascularization with staged PCI of all suitable nonculprit lesions (either during the index hospitalization or up to 45 days after randomization).
Overall, 4,041 patients from 140 centers were randomized with median 3-year follow-up. The complete revascularization group had lower rates of the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular disease or new MI (absolute reduction, 2.7%; 7.8% vs. 10.5%; number needed to treat, 37; hazard ratio, 0.74; 95% confidence interval, 0.60-0.91; P = .004). This finding was driven by lower incidence of new MI in the complete revascularization group – the incidence of death was similar between the groups. A coprimary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, new MI, or ischemia-driven revascularization also favored complete revascularization, with an absolute risk reduction of 7.8% (8.9% vs. 16.7%; NNT, 13; HR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.43-0.61; P less than .001). No statistically significant differences between groups were noted for the safety outcomes of major bleeding, stroke, stent thrombosis, or contrast-induced kidney injury.
Bottom line: Patients with STEMI who have multivessel disease incidentally discovered during primary PCI have a lower incidence of new MI and ischemia-driven revascularization when they undergo complete revascularization of all suitable lesions, as opposed to PCI of only their culprit lesion.
Citation: Mehta SR et al. Complete revascularization with multivessel PCI for myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med. 2019 Oct 10;381:1411-21.
Dr. Porter is chief quality and safety resident at the Rocky Mountain Veterans Affairs Regional Medical Center, Aurora, Colo.