SAN ANTONIO – Unplanned whose discharge process involved a pulmonary nurse practitioner to coordinate continuity of care, a study of more than 70 patients has found.
Despite an increase over time in the rate of discharges, readmissions fell, Sarah Barry, CRNP, of Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP), said at the annual meeting of the American College of Chest Physicians.
“The technology-dependent pediatric population who is going home with tracheostomy and ventilator dependence is at risk for hospital readmission, and having an advanced practice provider in a continuity role promotes adherence to our standards of practice and improves transition to home,” Ms. Barry said in an interview.
She noted previous research showing that 40% of 109 home mechanical ventilation patients discharged between 2003 and 2009 had unplanned readmissions, 28% of which occurred within the first month after discharge.
Nearly two thirds (64%) of those readmissions were related to a pulmonary and/or tracheostomy problem. That study also found that changes in condition management 1 week before discharge, such as medications, ventilator settings, or feeding regimens, was associated with unplanned readmission.
That research “makes us ask ourselves if our readmissions are avoidable and what can we do to get these kids home safe and to keep them home,” Ms. Barry told attendees, adding that CHOP was unhappy with their readmission rates.
“Kids were often not making it to their first pulmonary appointment, and it was a burden for these families,” she said. “We questioned whether or not having a nurse practitioner in a role to promote adherence to our standards would have a positive impact on our unplanned route.”
They evaluated the effect of such an NP on unplanned readmissions among tracheostomy/ventilator-supported children. The NP’s role was to track patients, mostly from the progressive care unit, who required a tracheostomy and ventilator and were expected to be discharged home or to a long-term care facility. The NP provided continuity for medical management and coordinated care at discharge.
“We also do not make changes for 2 weeks before discharge so that we can focus on all the other coordination that goes into getting these kids home,” Ms. Barry said.
She reviewed the patients’ electronic charts to record time to scheduled follow-up visit, days until hospital readmission, admitting diagnosis at readmission, and length of stay after readmission. With consideration for the time needed for transition into this new process, the population studied was assessed within three cohorts.
The first cohort comprised the 22 children discharged between April 2016 and March 2017, the full year before a pulmonary NP began coordinating the discharge process. These patients averaged 1.8 discharges per month with an initial follow-up of 2-12 weeks.
Just over a quarter (27%) of the first cohort were readmitted before their scheduled follow-up, ranging from 2 to 25 days after discharge. Five percent were readmitted within a week of discharge, and 27% were readmitted within a month; their average length of stay was 13 days after readmission. Most (83%) of these discharges were respiratory related while the other 17% were gastrointestinal related.
The second cohort involved the 11 patients discharged between April 2017 and August 2017, the first 5 months after a pulmonary NP began overseeing the discharge readiness process.
“We chose 5 months because it took about 5months for me to develop my own protocols and standards of practice,” Ms. Barry explained.
An average 2.2 discharges occurred monthly with 2-8 weeks of initial postdischarge follow-up. Though nearly half these children (45%) were readmitted before their scheduled follow-up, their length of stay was shorter, an average of 11 days.
Readmission within a week after discharge occurred among 27% of the children, and 45% of them were readmitted within a month of discharge. Sixty percent of these patients were readmitted for respiratory issues, compared with 40% with GI issues.
The third cohort included all 38 patients discharged from September 2017 to August 2018, the year after a pulmonary NP had become fully established in the continuity role, with an average 3.2 discharges occurred per month. Readmission rates were considerably lower: Eighteen percent of patients were readmitted before their scheduled follow-up appointment, which ranged from 1 to 13 weeks after discharge.
Five percent were readmitted within a week of discharge, and 24% were readmitted within a month, ranging from 1 to 26 days post discharge. But length of stay was shorter still at an average of 9 days.
The reasons for readmission varied more in this cohort: While 56% were respiratory related, 22% were related to fever, and 11% were related to neurodevelopment concerns or social reasons, such as necessary involvement of social services.
Ms. Barry’s colleague, Howard B. Panitch, MD, also on the staff of CHOP, noted during the discussion that the NP’s role is invaluable in “keeping the inpatient teams honest.
“She reminds her colleagues in critical care that you can’t make that ventilator change when on your way out the door or very close to discharge.”
Ms. Barry had no disclosures. No external funding was noted.
SOURCE: Barry S et al. CHEST 2018 Oct. doi: 10.1016/j.chest.2018.08.743.