Predictive risk factors for cardiac events (CEs) after general and vascular surgery differed significantly, according to a large retrospective study. However, there was no significant difference seen in the overall incidence of CEs between the two types of surgery, reported Derrick Acheampong, MD, and his colleagues at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York.
They performed a retrospective data analysis of 8,441 adult patients at their large urban teaching hospital; these patients had undergone general or vascular surgery during 2013-2016 and, in the analysis, were grouped by whether they experienced postoperative CEs.
Univariate and multivariate analyses identified predictors of postoperative CE and the association of CEs with adverse postoperative outcomes. CEs were defined as myocardial infarction or cardiac arrest within the 30-day postoperative period.
A total of 157 patients (1.9%) experienced CEs after major general and vascular surgery, with no significant difference in incidence between the two types of surgery (P = .44), according to their report, published online in the. CE-associated mortality among this group was high, at 55.4%.
The occurrence of a CE following surgery in both groups was significantly associated with increased mortality, as well as pulmonary, renal, and neurological complications, in addition to systemic sepsis, postoperative red blood cell transfusion, unplanned return to the operating room, and prolonged hospitalization, according to the researchers.
However, predictors of CEs risk between vascular and general surgery were significantly different.
For general surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) status greater than 3, dependent functional status, acute renal failure or dialysis, weight loss, creatinine greater than 1.2 mg/dL, international normalized ratio (INR) greater than 1.5, and partial thromboplastin time (PTT) less than 35 seconds were all unique independent predictors of postoperative CEs.
For vascular surgery, the unique significant predictors of postoperative CEs were age greater than 65 years, emergency surgery, diabetes, congestive heart failure, systemic sepsis, and operative time greater than 240 minutes.
The only common predictive risk factors for postoperative CEs for the two forms of surgery were hematocrit less than 34% and ventilator dependence.
“The present study corroborates reported studies that recommend separate predictive CE risk indices and risk stratification among different surgical specialties. Predictors for CE greatly differed between general and vascular surgery patients in our patient population,” the authors stated.
They concluded with the hope that their study “provides useful information to surgeons and allows for the necessary resources to be focused on identified at-risk patients to improve surgical outcomes.”
Dr. Acheampong and his colleagues reported having no disclosures.
SOURCE: Acheampong D et al. Ann Med Surg. 2018. .
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