Background: Data on the efficacy of anticoagulation to reduce stroke risk in patients with new-onset atrial fibrillation due to acute coronary syndrome (ACS), acute pulmonary disease (APD), and sepsis are limited.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: All hospitals in Quebec.
Synopsis: Authors included 2,304 patients aged 65 and older with new atrial fibrillation secondary to ACS, APD, and sepsis. Anticoagulation was started for 38.4%, 34.1%, and 27.7% of these patients and the incidence of stroke was 5.4%, 3.9%, and 5.8% in the ACS, APD, and sepsis populations, respectively. After 3 years, anticoagulation use was not associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke in any cohort. In a multivariate analysis adjusted for the HAS-BLED score, anticoagulation was associated with a higher risk of bleeding in patients with APD (odds ratio, 1.72; 95% confidence interval, 1.23-2.39) but not in ACS or sepsis.
The major limitation of this study was the reliance on administrative data alone, making it difficult to confirm and capture all patients with transient atrial fibrillation.
Bottom line: Anticoagulation use in patients with secondary atrial fibrillation may not be associated with a reduction in ischemic strokes, but may be associated with an increased bleeding risk in patients with atrial fibrillation secondary to acute pulmonary disease.
Citation: Quon MJ et al. Anticoagulant use and risk of ischemic stroke and bleeding in patients with secondary atrial fibrillation associated with acute coronary syndromes, acute pulmonary disease, or sepsis. JACC: Clinical Electrophysiology. Article in Press.
Dr. Gala is a hospitalist, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, and instructor in medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston.