Clinical question: Do patients hospitalized with acute COPD exacerbations have improved outcomes with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) compared to those treated with invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV)?
Background: Previous studies have shown that in select patients, NIV has a mortality benefit over IMV for acute COPD exacerbations requiring hospitalization. NIV may also decrease complication rates and reduce length of stay; however, the previous prospective studies have been small.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: 420 structurally and geographically diverse U.S. hospitals.
Synopsis: Using the Premier Healthcare Informatics database, this study looked at 25,628 patients over 40 years old who were hospitalized with COPD exacerbations. Compared with patients who were initially treated with IMV, patients treated with NIV demonstrated lower mortality rates with an odds ratio of 0.54, lower risk of hospital-acquired pneumonia with an odds ratio of 0.53, and a 32% cost reduction. They also had shorter lengths of stay.
This was a retrospective study using a limited data set, and the authors did not have access to potentially confounding factors between the two groups, including vital signs and blood gases. Additionally, the advantages of NIV were attenuated among patients with pneumonia present on admission, patients with high burden of comorbid diseases, and patients older than 85 years.
Bottom line: Treatment of acute COPD exacerbations with NIV is associated with lower mortality, lower costs, and shorter length of stay as compared with IMV.
Citation: Lindenauer PK, Stefan MS, Shieh MS, Pekow PS, Rothberg MB, Hill NS. Outcomes associated with invasive and noninvasive ventilation among patients hospitalized with exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(12):1982-1993.