Infants aged 22-28 days
In both the 22- to 28-day-old and 29- to 60-day-old groups, the guideline offers opportunities for less testing and treatment, such as avoiding a lumbar puncture, and fewer hospitalizations. The development of a separate guideline for the 22- to 28-day group is something new, said Dr. Pantell. The guideline states that clinicians should obtain urine specimens and blood culture, and should assess IM in this group. Further key action statements note that clinicians “should obtain a CSF if any IM is positive,” but “may” obtain CSF if the infant is hospitalized, if blood and urine cultures have been obtained, and if none of the IMs are abnormal.
As with younger patients, those with a negative CSF can go home, he said. As for treatment, clinicians “should” administer parenteral antimicrobial therapy to infants managed at home even if they have a negative CSF and urinalysis (UA), and no abnormal inflammatory markers Other points for management of infants in this age group at home include verbal teaching and written instructions for caregivers, plans for a re-evaluation at home in 24 hours, and a plan for communication and access to emergency care in case of a change in clinical status, Dr. Pantell explained. The guideline states that infants “should” be hospitalized if CSF is either not obtained or not interpretable, which leaves room for clinical judgment and individual circumstances. Antimicrobials “should” be discontinued in this group once all cultures are negative after 24-36 hours and no other infection requires treatment.
Infants aged 29-60 days
For the 29- to 60-day group, there are some differences, the main one is the recommendation of blood cultures in this group, said Dr. Pantell. “We are seeing a lot of UTIs [urinary tract infections], and we would like those treated.” However, clinicians need not obtain a CSF if other IMs are normal, but may do so if any IM is abnormal. Antimicrobial therapy may include ceftriaxone or cephalexin for UTIs, or vancomycin for bacteremia.
Although antimicrobial therapy is an option for UTIs and bacterial meningitis, clinicians “need not” use antimicrobials if CSF is normal, if UA is negative, and if no IMs are abnormal, Dr. Pantell added. Overall, further management of infants in this oldest age group should focus on discharge to home in the absence of abnormal findings, but hospitalization in the presence of abnormal CSF, IMs, or other concerns.
During a question-and-answer session, Dr. Roberts said that, while rectal temperature is preferable, any method is acceptable as a starting point for applying the guideline. Importantly, the guideline still leaves room for clinical judgment. “We hope this will change some thinking as far as whether one model fits all,” he noted. The authors tried to temper the word “should” with the word “may” when possible, so clinicians can say: “I’m going to individualize my decision to the infant in front of me.”
Ultimately, the guideline is meant as a guide, and not an absolute standard of care, the authors said. The language of the key action statements includes the words “should, may, need not” in place of “must, must not.” The guideline recommends factoring family values and preferences into any treatment decisions. “Variations, taking into account individual circumstances, may be appropriate.”
The guideline received no outside funding. The authors had no financial conflicts to disclose.
© Frontline Medical Communications 2018-2021. Reprinted with permission, all rights reserved.