It is becoming increasingly clear that obesity is one of the biggest risk factors for severe COVID-19 disease, particularly among younger patients.
Newly published data from New York show that, among those aged under 60 years, obesity was twice as likely to result in hospitalization for COVID-19 and also significantly increased the likelihood that a person would end up in intensive care.
“Obesity [in people younger than 60] appears to be a previously unrecognized risk factor for hospital admission and need for critical care. This has important and practical implications when nearly 40% of adults in the U.S. are obese with a body mass index [BMI] of [at least] 30,” wrote Jennifer Lighter, MD, of New York University Langone Health, and colleagues in their research letter published in Clinical Infectious Diseases.
Similar findings in a preprint publication, yet to be peer reviewed, from another New York hospital show that, with the exception of older age, obesity (BMI greater than 40 kg/m2) had the strongest association with hospitalization for COVID-19, increasing the risk more than 500%.
Meanwhile, a new French study shows a high frequency of obesity among patients admitted to one ICU for COVID-19; furthermore, disease severity increased with increasing BMI. One of the authors said in an interview that many of the presenting patients were younger, with their only risk factor being obesity.
“Patients with obesity should avoid any COVID-19 contamination by enforcing all prevention measures during the current pandemic,” wrote the authors, led by Arthur Simonnet, MD, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille (France).
They also stressed that COVID-19 patients “with severe obesity should be monitored more closely.”
Those with obesity are young and become very sick, very quickly
François Pattou, MD, PhD, coauthor of the French article published in Obesity said in an interview that, when patients with COVID-19 began to arrive at their ICU in Lille, there were young patients who did not have any other comorbidities.
“They were just obese,” he observed, adding that they seemed “to have a very specific disease, something different” from that seen before, with patients becoming very sick, very quickly.
In their study, they examined 124 consecutive patients admitted to intensive care with COVID-19 between Feb. 25 and April 5, 2020, and compared them with a historical control group of 306 patients admitted to the ICU at the same hospital for non–COVID-19-related severe acute respiratory disease in 2019.
By April 6, 60 patients with COVID-19 had been discharged from intensive care, 18 had died, and 46 remained in the unit. The majority (73%) were male, and their median age was 60 years. Obesity and severe obesity were significantly more prevalent among the patients with COVID-19, at 47.6% and 28.2% versus 25.2% and 10.8% among historical controls (P < .001 for trend).
A key finding was that those with a BMI greater than 35 had a more than 600% increased risk of requiring mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 7.36; P = .021), compared with those with a BMI less than 25, even after adjusting for age, diabetes, and hypertension.