Hospital medicine has been the fastest growing medical specialty since the term “hospitalist” was coined by Bob Wachter, MD, in the famous 1996 New England Journal of Medicine article (doi: 10.1056/NEJM199608153350713). The growth and change within this specialty is also reflected in the changing and migrating target of hospitals and hospital systems as they continue to effectively and safely move from fee-for-service to a payer model that rewards value and improvement in the health of a population – both in and outside of hospital walls.
In a short time, nurse practitioners and physician assistants have become a growing population in the hospital medicine workforce. The 2018 State of Hospital Medicine Reportin 4 years, and about 75% of hospital medicine groups across the country currently incorporate NP/PAs within a hospital medicine practice. This evolution has occurred in the setting of a looming and well-documented physician shortage, a variety of cost pressures on hospitals that reflect the need for an efficient and cost-effective care delivery model, an increasing NP/PA workforce (the Department of Labor of 35% and 36% respectively by 2036), and data that indicates similar outcomes, for example, HCAHPS (the Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems), readmission, and morbidity and mortality in NP/PA-driven care.
This evolution, however, reveals a true knowledge gap in best practices related to integration of these providers. This is impacted by wide variability in the preparation of NPs – they may enter hospitalist practice from a variety of clinical exposures and training, for example, adult gerontology acute care, adult, or even, in some states, family NPs. For PAs, this is reflected in the variety of clinical rotations and pregraduate clinical exposure.
This variability is compounded, too, by the lack of standardization of hospital medicine practices, both with site size and patient acuity, a variety of challenges that drive the need for integration of NP/PA providers, andclinical models and function.
In that perspective, it is important to define what constitutes a leading and successful advanced practice provider (APP) integration program. I would suggest:
- A structured and formalized transition-to-practice program for all new graduates and those new to hospital medicine. This program should consist of clinical volume progression, formalized didactic congruent with the Society of Hospital Medicine Core Competencies, and a process for evaluating knowledge and decision making throughout the program and upon completion.
- Development of physician competencies related to APP integration. Physicians are not prepared in their medical school training or residency to understand the differences and similarities of NP/PA providers. These competencies should be required and can best be developed through steady leadership, formalized instruction and accountability for professional teamwork.
- Allowance for NP/PA providers to work at the top of their skills and license. This means utilizing NP/PAs as providers who care for patients – not as scribes or clerical workers. The evolution of the acuity of patients provided for may evolve with the skill set and experience of NP/PAs, but it will evolve – especially if steps 1 and 2 are in place.
- Productivity expectations that reach near physician level of volume. In 2016 State of Hospital Medicine Report data, yearly billable encounters for NP/PAs were within 10% of that of physicians. I think 15% is a reasonable goal.
- Implementation and support of APP administrative leadership structure at the system/site level. This can be as simple as having APPs on the same leadership committees as physician team members, being involved in hiring and training newer physicians and NP/PAs or as broad as having all NP/PAs report to an APP leader. Having an intentional leadership structure that demonstrates and reflects inclusivity and belonging is crucial.
Consistent application of these frameworks will provide a strong infrastructure for successful NP/PA practice.
Ms. Cardin is currently the vice president of advanced practice providers at Sound Physicians and serves on SHM’s board of directors as its secretary. This article appeared initially at the Hospital Leader, the official blog of SHM.