From the Journals

In California, opioids most often prescribed in low-income, mostly white areas

Key clinical point: The most common users of opioids according to prescription drug records are residents of mostly low-income, white neighborhoods.

Major finding: Compared with 23.6% of all Californians, 44.2% of individuals in zip codes containing mostly low-income, white residents had at least one opioid prescription each year, compared with 16.1% of individuals in high-income zip codes with the lowest population of white residents.

Study details: An analysis of 29.7 million opioid prescription drug records by race and income in California during 2011-2015.

Disclosures: Dr. Schriger reported support from the Korein Foundation for his time working on the study by Friedman et al. The other authors from Friedman et al. reported no conflicts of interest.

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Physicians are uniquely suited to lead culture change against addiction

The results published by Friedman et al. are a reminder that we can use regional prescribing trends to identify communities most susceptible to the opioid epidemic and give them the resources they need to combat opioid addiction, Vice Adm. Jerome M. Adams, MD, MPH, and Adm. Brett P. Giroir, MD, wrote in a related editorial.

Dr. Jerome Adams is the 20th United States Surgeon General

Dr. Jerome Adams, United States Surgeon General

The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has declared the opioid epidemic a public health emergency and has invested $2 billion in 2019 to help states and communities fight opioid addiction. HHS also has provided support for implementing the Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and partnered with the National Institutes of Health to research opioid misuse and opioid use disorder (OUD). These initiatives are in response to HHS’s strategy to combat the opioid epidemic, which includes improving data, research, and pain management, as well as targeting of overdose-reversing drugs. The results by Guy et al. in this issue of JAMA also reference evidence-based opioid prescribing guidelines, such as those provided by the CDC, as an important component of curbing the effects of the opioid epidemic.

“Discussion of overdose risks and coprescribing of naloxone must become routine if we are to make opioid prescribing safer,” the authors wrote.

Physicians also can help respond to the opioid epidemic outside of prescribing by promoting evidence-based nonopioid and nonpharmaceutical pain treatments, screening their patients for OUD and OUD risks, and acknowledging “that the problem cannot be solved by medical interventions alone.” Individual, environmental, and societal factors also contribute to the opioid epidemic, and physicians are uniquely suited to spearhead efforts aimed at addressing comprehensive opioid misuse.

“Physicians stand out as natural leaders to help solve the crises because of the depth of their knowledge, immediacy of their contact with patients, and relatively high level of respect their profession enjoys,” Dr. Adams and Dr. Giroir wrote. “We thereby call on our nation’s doctors to embrace their roles in the clinic and beyond to help educate communities, bring together stakeholders, and be part of the cultural change to support people living free from addiction.”

Dr. Adams is the 20th surgeon general of the United States at the U.S. Public Health Service and HHS; Dr. Giroir is the 16th U.S. assistant secretary for health at the U.S. Public Health Service and HHS. They reported no relevant conflicts of interest. Their invited commentary accompanied the three related articles in the publication (JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.7934 ).


 

FROM JAMA INTERNAL MEDICINE

There is a higher prevalence of opioid prescribing and opioid-related overdose deaths concentrated in regions with mostly low-income, white residents, compared with regions with high income and the lowest proportion of white residents, according to a new analysis of data on people living in California.

Pill bottles spill opioid tablets and capsules sdominick/iStock/Getty Images

The findings of this study provide further evidence that the opioid epidemic affects a large proportion of low-income white communities (JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6721).

“Whereas most epidemics predominate within social minority groups and previous US drug epidemics have typically been concentrated in nonwhite communities, the current opioid crisis is largely found among lower-income and majority-white communities,” Joseph Friedman, MPH, from the University of California, Los Angeles, and his colleagues wrote in their study. “Our analysis suggests that, at least in California, an important determinant of this phenomenon may be that white individuals have a higher level of exposure than nonwhite individuals to opioid prescriptions on a per capita basis through the health care system.”

Mr. Friedman and his colleagues analyzed 29.7 million prescription drug records from California’s Controlled Substance Utilization Review and Evaluation System in and examined the prevalence of opioids, benzodiazepines, and stimulants by race, ethnicity, and income level in 1,760 zip codes during 2011-2015. The researchers estimated the prevalence of opioid prescriptions in each zip code by calculating the number of people per zip code receiving an opioid prescription divided by the population of the zip code during each year.

Overall, 23.6% of California residents received at least one opioid prescription each year of the study. The researchers found 44.2% of individuals in zip codes with the lowest income but highest proportion of white residents and 16.1% of individuals in areas with the highest income and lowest proportion of white residents had received a minimum of one opioid prescription each year. The prevalence of stimulant prescriptions was 3.8% in zip codes with high income, and a high proportion of white population, compared with a prevalence of 0.6% in areas with low income and a low proportion of white residents. The researchers noted there was no association between income and benzodiazepine prescription, but the prevalence of benzodiazepine prescriptions was 15.7% in zip codes with the highest proportion of white residents, compared with 7.0% in zip codes with a low proportion of white residents.

During the same time period, there were 9,534 opioid overdose deaths in California from causes such as fentanyl, synthetic opioids, and prescription opioids. “Overdose deaths were highly concentrated in lower-income and mostly white areas,” Mr. Friedman and his colleagues wrote. “We observed an approximate 10-fold difference in overdose rates across the race/ethnicity–income gradient in California.”

Although the number of opioids prescribed each year has decreased since 2012, in a research letter published in the same issue noted that the rate of prescribing is still higher than it was in 1999 (JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.6989). The authors also pointed out increases in the duration of opioid prescriptions and wide regional variations in opioid prescribing rates.

In their study, Gery P. Guy Jr., PhD, and his colleagues used data from the IQVIA Xponent database from approximately 50,400 retail pharmacies and discovered the average morphine milligram equivalent (MME) per capita had decreased from 641.4 MME per capita in 2015 to 512.6 MME per capita in 2017 (20.1%). The number of opioid prescriptions also decreased from 6.7 per 100 persons in 2015 to 5.0 per 100 persons in 2017 (25.3%). However, during 2015-2017, the average duration of opioid prescriptions increased from 17.7 days to 18.3 days (3.4%), while the median duration increased during the same time from 15.0 days to 20.0 days (33.3%).

While 74.7% of counties reduced the number of opioids prescribed during 2015-2017 and there also were reductions in the rate of high-dose prescribing (76.6%) and overall prescribing rates (74.7%), Dr. Guy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and his colleagues found “substantial variation” in 2017 prescription rates at the county level, with opioids prescribed at 1,061.0 MME per capita at the highest quartile, compared with 182.8 MME per capita at the lowest quartile.

“Recent reductions could be related to policies and strategies aimed at reducing inappropriate prescribing, increased awareness of the risks associated with opioids, and release of the CDC Guideline for Prescribing Opioids for Chronic Pain–United States, 2016,” Dr. Guy and his colleagues noted.

In an additional article published in the same JAMA Internal Medicine issue, Bennett Allen, a research associate at the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene and his colleagues examined the rate of opioid overdose deaths for non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and undefined other races in New York (JAMA Intern Med. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.7700). They identified 1,487 deaths in 2017, which included 556 white (37.0%), 421 black (28.0%), 455 Hispanic (31.0%), and 55 undefined (4.0%) opioid overdose deaths. There was a higher rate of fentanyl and/or heroin overdose deaths from younger (aged 15-34 years) white New Yorkers (22.2/100,000 persons; 95% confidence interval, 19.0-25.5), compared with younger black New Yorkers (5.8/100,000; 95% CI, 4.0-8.2) and Hispanic (9.7/100,000; 95% CI, 7.6-12.1).

Among older residents (aged 55-84 years), Mr. Allen and his colleagues found higher rates of fentanyl and/or heroin overdose for black New Yorkers (25.4/100,000 persons; 95% CI, 20.9-30.0), compared with older white New Yorkers (9.4/100,000 persons; 95% CI, 7.3-11.8), as well as significantly higher rates of cocaine overdose (25.4/100,000 persons; 95% CI, 20.9-30.0), compared with white (5.1/100,000 persons; 95% CI, 3.6-7.0) and Hispanic residents (11.8/100,000 persons; 95% CI, 8.9-15.4).

“The distinct age distribution and drug involvement of overdose deaths among New York City blacks, Latinos, and whites, along with complementary evidence about drug use trajectories, highlight the need for heterogeneous approaches to treatment and the equitable allocation of treatment and health care resources to reach diverse populations at risk of overdose,” Mr. Allen and his colleagues wrote.

Dr. Schriger reported support from Korein Foundation for his time working on the study by Friedman et al. The other authors reported no conflicts of interest.

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