Clinical question: Can adoption of a local opioid standard of practice for hospitalized patients reduce intravenous and overall opioid exposure while providing effective pain control?
Background: Inpatient use of intravenous opioids may be excessive, considering that oral opioids may provide more consistent pain control with less risk of adverse effects. If oral treatment is not possible, subcutaneous administration of opioids is an effective and possibly less addictive alternative to the intravenous route.
Study design: Historical control pilot study.
Setting: Single adult general medicine unit in an urban academic medical center.
Synopsis: A 6-month historical period with 287 patients was compared with a 3-month intervention period with 127 patients. The intervention consisted of a clinical practice standard that was presented to medical and nursing staff via didactic sessions and email. The standard recommended the oral route for opioids in patients tolerating oral intake and endorsed subcutaneous over intravenous administration.
Intravenous doses decreased by 84% (0.06 vs. 0.39 doses/patient-day; P less than .001), the daily rate of patients receiving any parenteral opioid decreased by 57% (6% vs. 14%; P less than .001), and the mean daily overall morphine-milligram equivalents decreased by 31% (6.30 vs. 9.11). Pain scores were unchanged for hospital days 1 through 3 but were significantly improved on day 4 (P = .004) and day 5 (P = .009).
Limitations of this study include the small number of patients on one unit, in one institution, with one clinician group. Attractive features of the intervention include its scalability and potential for augmentation via additional processes such as EHR changes, prescribing restrictions, and pharmacy monitoring.
Bottom line: A standard of practice intervention with peer-to-peer education was associated with decreased intravenous opioid exposure, decreased total opioid exposure, and effective pain control.
Citation: Ackerman AL et al. Association of an opioid standard of practice intervention with intravenous opioid exposure in hospitalized patients..
Dr. Wanner is director, hospital medicine section, and associate chief, division of general internal medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City.