Patients with acute pancreatitis should receive “goal-directed” fluid therapy with normal saline or Ringer’s lactate solution rather than hydroxyethyl starch (HES) fluids, states a new guideline from the AGA Institute.
In a single-center randomized, hydroxyethyl starch fluids conferred a 3.9-fold increase in the odds of multiorgan failure (95% confidence interval for odds ratio, 1.2-12.0) compared with normal saline in patients with acute pancreatitis, wrote guideline authors Seth D. Crockett, MD, MPH, of the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, and his associates. This trial and another randomized study found no mortality benefit for HES compared with fluid resuscitation. The evidence is “very low quality” but mirrors the critical care literature, according to the experts. So far, Ringer’s lactate solution and normal saline have shown similar effects on the risk of organ failure, necrosis, and mortality, but ongoing trials should better clarify this choice, they noted (Gastroenterology. ).
The guideline addresses the initial 2-week period of treating acute pancreatitis. It defines goal-directed fluid therapy as titration based on meaningful targets, such as heart rate, mean arterial pressure, central venous pressure, urine output, blood urea nitrogen concentration, and hematocrit. Studies of goal-directed fluid therapy in acute pancreatitis have been unblinded, have used inconsistent outcome measures, and have found no definite benefits over nontargeted fluid therapy, note the guideline authors. Nevertheless, they conditionally recommend goal-directed fluid therapy, partly because a randomized, blindedof patients with severe sepsis or septic shock (which physiologically resembles acute pancreatitis) had in-hospital mortality rates of 31% when they received goal-directed fluid therapy and 47% when they received standard fluid therapy (P = .0009).
The guideline recommends against routine use of two interventions: prophylactic antibiotics and urgent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for patients with acute pancreatitis. The authors note that no evidence supports routine prophylactic antibiotics for acute pancreatitis patients without cholangitis, and that urgent ERCP did not significantly affect the risk of mortality, multiorgan failure, single-organ failure, infected pancreatic and peripancreatic necrosis, or necrotizing pancreatitis in eight randomized controlled trials of patients with acute gallstone pancreatitis.