The United States is in the midst of a public health crisis. Every day, 91 Americans die from opioid overdoses.1 Opioid addiction has a tremendous negative effect on parents and children by destroying lives and breaking up families. When used appropriately, these drugs, such as morphine, hydrocodone, oxycodone, and fentanyl, provide much needed pain relief to patients, especially after a surgical procedure or during treatment for cancer. Unfortunately, opioids also have qualities that make them addictive and prone to overuse and abuse.
Heroin and other opioid drugs are affecting social, health, and economic welfare in communities throughout the United States. Opioid addiction does not discriminate among occupations, socioeconomic statuses, or ethnicities. Once addicted, users find it difficult to fight and overcome the habit. In this context, hospitalists who develop and use opioid policies and tactics are better equipped to deal with the increasing prevalence of opioid addiction and overdoses seen in the medical center environment.
Overview of opioid addiction
Opioids are more prevalent and easily available today in part because of the intense marketing campaigns by pharmaceutical companies. In fact, according to the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, almost 2 million Americans were dependent on or abused prescription opioids.2 Opioids create artificial endorphins in the brain, amplifying positive feelings and euphoria. Once they become dependent, patients feel sick and become depressed when they aren’t using narcotics. They experience uncontrollable cravings, relieved only by increasing opioid use. Personal relationships and finances are severely affected because patients will do whatever they can to acquire more opioids. Some resort to doctor shopping to obtain more opioids, while others will engage in drug trafficking to purchase and sell narcotics. Most new heroin users report that they started with nonmedical use of opioid pain relievers.3
Unfortunately, in 2015, there were more than 20,000 prescription opioid overdose deaths and almost 13,000 overdose deaths related to heroin.4 In addition to addiction and death, overuse of narcotics can cause many medical issues, including dizziness, constipation, depression, and immune dysfunction.
As with any addiction, there are many problems related to opiate withdrawal. Some of these include anxiety, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, piloerection, mydriasis, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, tachycardia, and hypertension. Methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release naltrexone typically are used to help alleviate cravings and the symptoms of withdrawal. With more than 1,000 patients treated daily by emergency departments for misuse of prescription opioids, it’s imperative for the medical community to address this health care crisis.5
Impact on first responders and hospitalists
The impact of this epidemic on the medical community is dramatic. Emergency system resources, already on overload, are further taxed and drained by the increased 911 calls for overdose incidents. This means that instead of responding to heart attacks, strokes, or other emergencies, first responders are spending time stabilizing overdose patients and taking them to hospitals. This resource drain spreads to emergency rooms and hospitals as they treat these patients. Eventually, the epidemic results in higher insurance costs to cover the impact on medical resources.
Strategies for hospitalists
A multifaceted approach is required to combat this crisis, and hospitalists are one component of that solution. Here are strategies hospitalists can employ to combat the growing use and abuse of narcotics:
- Screen for high-risk conditions. Before prescribing opioids, screen patients for conditions that may be exacerbated by opioid use, including sleep apnea, obesity COPD, and heart failure, as well as whether they are using medications that cause sedation and respiratory depression.
- Develop and follow pain management clinical pathway protocols. For example, start with nonopioid analgesics, such as acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and naproxen, for patients with mild pain. If the patient is in moderate pain, or if the mild pain was unrelieved by the first type of medicine, continue with opioid analgesics including codeine, oxycodone, hydrocodone, or morphine. Finally, if the patient is experiencing severe pain, or if the mild to moderate pain was unrelieved by previous medications, prescribe higher doses of morphine, fentanyl, or hydromorphone or use a patient-controlled analgesia delivery of an intravenous opioid.
- Discuss other treatment options. Instead of prescribing narcotics, assess whether other treatment options are viable. These include physical and occupational therapy, steroid shots, massage, local nerve blocks, and muscle relaxers.
- Evaluate the reason(s) for current use of prescribed narcotics. It’s crucial to determine why patients are using opioids. The medical condition for which they were prescribed these medications may have resolved. If patients are using opioids without a medically indicated reason, offer alternative medications, such as methadone or naltrexone, and provide education to help them slowly taper off the drugs. Do not cease opioid use altogether unless the use is contraindicated because of other medical conditions or unstable vital signs (for example, low blood pressure).
- Train nurses on opioid use and addiction. Educate nurses about opioid addiction risk factors and symptoms of addiction. Instruct them on managing the Ramsay Sedation Scale and using an opioid sedation scale with patients receiving IV narcotics.
- Educate families on opioid use and addiction. Counsel patients and their families on the long-term effects of opioid use and about the warning signs of addiction. Teach them about alternatives to narcotics.
- Offer referrals to specialized clinics. Work with social workers, case managers, and local mental health professionals to refer patients to behavioral counseling, patient and family support groups, and monitored detoxification clinics qualified to treat opioid addiction.