Bottom line: RSV infection is an underappreciated cause of lower tract respiratory infection in adults; severe infections that require hospitalization have rates of mortality similar to seasonal influenza. Further research on treatment or immunization is needed.
Citation: Lee N, Lui GC, Wong KT, et al. High morbidity and mortality in adults hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus infections. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(8):1069-1077.
Antibiotic Algorithm Can Guide Therapy in Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia
Clinical question: Can an algorithm based on risk for multidrug-resistant (MDR) organisms and illness severity guide antibiotic selection in healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP)?
Background: The 2005 American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines identify patients with HCAP as those with recent contact with a healthcare environment, including nursing homes and hemodialysis; however, previous studies have shown that not all patients with healthcare contact have equal risk for MDR organisms.
Study design: Prospective cohort study.
Setting: Japan, multi-center.
Synopsis: Of the 445 enrolled patients, 124 were diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 321 with HCAP. Patients with HCAP were classified based on severity of illness or MDR pathogen risk factors (immune suppression, hospitalization within the last 90 days, poor functional status, and antibiotics within the past six months). Patients with low risk (0-1 factors) for MDR organisms were treated for CAP, and patients with high risk (≥2 factors) or moderate risk (≥1 factor) for severe illness were treated for HCAP.
HCAP patients had a higher 30-day mortality rate (13.7% vs. 5.6%, P=0.017), but mortality rate was less in the patients at low risk for MDR pathogens (8.6% vs. 18.2%, P=0.012). Of the HCAP patients, only 7.1% received inappropriate therapy (pathogen resistant to initial antibiotic regimen), and treatment failure was 19.3%.
Appropriateness of initial empiric therapy was determined not to be a mortality risk; however, this trial might be limited by its location, because Japan appears to have fewer MDR pathogens than the U.S.
Bottom line: A treatment algorithm based on risk for MDR organisms and severity of illness can be used to guide empiric antibiotic therapy in patients with HCAP, and, ideally, to reduce excessive use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Citation: Maruyama T, Fujisawa T, Okuno M, et al. A new strategy for healthcare-associated pneumonia: a 2-year prospective multicenter cohort study using risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens to select initial empiric therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57(10):1373-1383.
Three-Month Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for Zotarolimus-Eluting Stents
Clinical question: Is short-term, dual antiplatelet therapy noninferior to long-term therapy in zotarolimus-eluting stents?
Background: Current guidelines recommend long-term (>12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy after the placement of drug-eluting stents. The optimal therapy duration in second-generation drug-eluting stents has not been studied; moreover, some studies with multiple drug-eluting stents have suggested no added benefit from long-term therapy.
Study design: Randomized controlled trial.
Setting: Brazil, multi-center.
Synopsis: Researchers randomized 3,211 patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) or low-risk acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing intervention with zotarolimus-eluting stents to short-term (three months) or long-term (12 months) dual antiplatelet therapy. Exclusion criteria included ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), previous drug-eluting stent, scheduled elective surgery within 12 months, or contraindication to aspirin or clopidogrel. Primary endpoints were a composite of death from any cause, MI, stroke, or major bleeding. Secondary endpoints were stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization, adverse cardiac event, and any bleed.
At one-year follow-up, the short-term group had similar primary (6.0% vs. 5.8%) and secondary (8.3% vs. 7.4%) outcomes compared to the long-term. The short-term group’s noninferiority also was seen in several key subgroups.
This study included patients with stable CAD or low-risk ACS and cannot be generalized to higher-risk patients. Results for zotarolimus-eluting stents cannot be generalized to other second-generation drug-eluting stents.