Study design: Population-based cohort study.
Setting: The Myocardial Ischemia National Audit Project, linked to the General Practice Research Database, in the United Kingdom.
Synopsis: Researchers identified 1,063 patients over the age of 18 with COPD admitted to the hospital with a first acute MI. Use of beta blockers during hospitalization was associated with increased overall and one-year survival. Initiation of beta blockers during an MI had a mortality-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.50 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.69; P<0.001; median follow-up time=2.9 years).
Patients already on beta blockers prior to the MI had overall survival-adjusted hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI 0.44 to 0.79; P<0.001). Both scenarios showed survival benefits compared to COPD patients who were not prescribed beta blockers. Patients given beta blockers with COPD either during the MI hospitalization or before the event were younger and had fewer comorbidities. This may have accounted for some of the survival bias.
Bottom line: The use of beta blockers in patients with COPD started prior to, or at the time of, hospital admission for a first MI is associated with improved survival.
Citation: Quint JK, Herret E, Bhaskaran K, et al. Effect of ß blockers on mortality after myocardial infarction in adults with COPD: population-based cohort study of UK electronic healthcare records. BMJ. 2013;347:f6650.
Neither Low-Dose Dopamine nor Low-Dose Nesiritide Improves Renal Dysfunction in Acute Heart Failure Patients
Clinical question: Does low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide added to diuretic therapy enhance pulmonary volume reduction and preserve renal function in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction, compared to placebo?
Background: Small studies have suggested that low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide may be beneficial in enhancing decongestion and improving renal dysfunction; however, there is ambiguity in overall benefit. Some observational studies suggest that dopamine and nesiritide are associated with higher length of stay, higher costs, and greater mortality.
Study Design: RCT.
Setting: Twenty-six hospital sites in the U.S. and Canada.
Synopsis: Three hundred sixty patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction were randomized to receive either nesiritide or dopamine within 24 hours of admission. Within each of these arms, patients were then randomized, in a double-blinded 2:1 fashion, into active treatment versus placebo groups. Treatment groups were compared to the pooled placebo groups.
Two main endpoints were urine output and change in serum cystatin C, from enrollment to 72 hours. Compared with placebo, low-dose dopamine had no significant effect on urine output or serum cystatin C level. Similarly, low-dose nesiritide had no significant effect on 72-hour urine output or serum cystatin C level.
Other studies have shown these drugs to be potentially harmful. Hospitalists should use caution and carefully interpret the relevant evidence when considering their use.
Bottom line: Neither low-dose nesiritide nor low-dose dopamine improved urine output or serum cystatin C levels at 72 hours in patients with acute heart failure and renal dysfunction.
Citation: Chen HH, Anstrom KJ, Givertz MM, et al. Low-dose dopamine or low-dose nesiritide in acute heart failure with renal dysfunction: The ROSE acute heart failure randomized trial. JAMA. 2013;310(23):2533-2543.