Is the use of azithromycin for older patients hospitalized with pneumonia associated with increased mortality or an increased risk of cardiovascular events?
For older patients hospitalized with pneumonia, the use of combination antibiotic therapy including azithromycin is associated with decreased mortality but increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI). You would need to treat 21 patients with azithromycin to prevent 1 death within 90 days; you would need to treat 144 patients to cause 1 MI. This results in a net benefit of 7 deaths prevented for 1 nonfatal MI induced with the use of azithromycin. (LOE = 2b)
Inpatient (any location)
Using data from the Veterans Administration health care system, these authors examined the association of azithromycin with death and cardiovascular outcomes in older patients who were hospitalized with pneumonia. Patients included in the study were those aged at least 65 years who received antibiotic therapy per guidelines from the Infectious Diseases Society of America and American Thoracic Society for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Primary outcomes were death at 30 days and 90 days, as well as cardiovascular events within 90 days. The cohort was divided into those who received combination therapy (which included azithromycin) and those who received other guideline-concordant antibiotics. Subsequently, propensity scores were used to match patients based on potential confounders — such as age, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and history of prior cardiac disease — that could affect the severity of illness or outcomes. Almost 64,000 patients were included in the propensity-matched analysis. Patients had a mean age of 78 years, 16% were admitted to the ICU, and 5% received invasive mechanical ventilation. In this cohort, 90-day mortality was lower for azithromycin users (17% vs 22%; odds ratio [OR] = 0.76; 95% CI, 0.73-0.80). Although azithromycin users had more MIs (5.1% vs 4.4%; OR = 1.17; 1.08-1.25), there were no statistically significant differences in overall cardiac events, cardiac arrhythmias, or heart failure.
Dr. Kulkarni is an assistant professor of hospital medicine at Northwestern University in Chicago.