Clinical question: Do different thresholds for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion influence the risk of infection, and does leukocyte reduction also influence the risk of infection?
Background: RBC transfusion is a common and costly medical intervention performed across U.S. hospitals. Scientists suspect that RBC transfusion may have immunomodulatory properties and may affect a patient’s risk of acquiring various infections.
Study design: Meta-analysis and systematic review.
Setting: International adult, pediatric, obstetric medical and surgical wards, and ICUs.
Synopsis: Eighteen studies performed were included in the meta-analysis of published randomized trials comparing restrictive to liberal RBC transfusion strategies in which infectious outcomes were reported. Patient enrollment spanned from 1994 to 2012. Six of the trials included pediatric patients. For adult patients, the restrictive RBC transfusion threshold ranged from 6.4–9.7 g/dL, while the liberal target ranged from 9-11.3 g/dL in included trials.
The overall pooled risk ratio for the association of restrictive vs. liberal transfusion threshold with infection was 0.99 (95% CI, 0.78-0.99; P=0.033). A decreased risk of infection with the use of a restrictive transfusion compared with a liberal threshold persisted in studies of leukocyte-reduced blood products.
Bottom line: Restrictive RBC transfusion thresholds are associated with a decreased risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections compared with liberal transfusion thresholds.
Citation: Rohde JM, Dimcheff DE, Blumberg N, et al. Health care-associated infection after red blood cell transfusion: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2014;311(13):1317-1326.