Bottom line: Apixaban is a safe and effective anticoagulant for extended anticoagulation in patients with VTE initially treated with six to 12 months of warfarin.
Citation: Agnelli GM, Buller HR, Cohen A, et al. Apixaban for extended treatment of venous thromboembolism. N Engl J Med. 2013;368(8):699-708.
ACP Guideline Review: Upper Endoscopy for Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Clinical question: What are the indications of upper endoscopy in the setting of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)?
Background: GERD is a common condition. Upper endoscopy is widely available and routinely used for diagnosis and management of GERD and its complications. The indications for this procedure are not clearly defined. Overuse of upper endoscopy contributes to higher healthcare costs without improving patient outcomes.
Study design: Literature review and comparison of clinical guidelines from professional organizations by a team of general internists, gastroenterologists, and clinical epidemiologists. The document was not based on a formal systemic review but was intended to provide practical advice based on the best available evidence.
Synopsis: Best practice advice No. 1: Upper endoscopy is indicated in men and women with heartburn and alarm symptoms (dysphagia, bleeding, anemia, weight loss, and recurrent vomiting).
Best practice advice No. 2: Upper endoscopy is indicated in men and women with typical GERD symptoms that persist despite a therapeutic trial of four to eight weeks of twice-daily proton-pump inhibitor therapy, severe erosive esophagitis after a two-month course of proton-pump inhibitor therapy to assess healing and rule out Barrett esophagus, and history of esophageal stricture who have recurrent symptoms of dysphagia.
Best practice advice No. 3: Upper endoscopy might be indicated in men older than 50 with chronic GERD symptoms (symptoms for more than five years) and additional risk factors (nocturnal reflux symptoms, hiatal hernia, elevated body mass index, tobacco use, and intra-abdominal distribution of fat) to detect esophageal adenocarcinoma and Barrett esophagus. It might also be indicated for surveillance evaluation in men and women with a history of Barrett esophagus. In men and women with Barrett esophagus and no dysplasia, surveillance examinations should occur at intervals no more frequently than three to five years. More frequent intervals are indicated in patients with Barrett esophagus and dysplasia.
Bottom line: Use upper endoscopy selectively for patients with GERD.
Citation: Shaheen NJ, Weinberg DS, Denberg TD, et al. Upper endoscopy for gastroesophageal reflux disease: best practice advice from the Clinical Guidelines Committee of the American College of Physicians. Ann Intern Med. 2012;157(11):808-816.