Setting: ICUs in 31 tertiary-care and community hospitals in Australia and New Zealand.
Synopsis: Researchers randomized 1,372 critically ill adults with relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition upon admission to the ICU to receive early parenteral nutrition or standard care. Early parenteral nutrition was started an average of 44 minutes after randomization. Clinicians defined standard care, with most patients remaining unfed for 2.8 days after randomization. Results were analyzed by intention-to-treat analysis, and loss to follow-up was 1%.
There was no significant difference in the primary outcome of 60-day mortality. Early parenteral nutrition patients received significantly fewer days of invasive ventilation, but did not have shorter ICU or hospital stays. Early parenteral nutrition patients experienced significantly less muscle-wasting and fat loss. There was no significant difference in new infection rates.
Bottom line: Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill adults resulted in significantly fewer days of invasive mechanical ventilation but did not cause a significant difference in length of stay, infection rates, or 60-day mortality.
Citation: Doig GS, Simpson F, Sweetman EA, et al. Early parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients with short-term relative contraindications to early enteral nutrition. JAMA. 2013;309(20): 2130-2138.
Aggressive Fluid and Sodium Restriction in Acute Decompensated Heart Failure Did Not Improve Outcomes
Clinical question: Does aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) result in increased weight loss, improved clinical stability, or decreased 30-day readmission rate?
Background: Fluid and sodium restriction are standard nonpharmacologic measures used in the management of ADHF in hospitalized patients, despite an absence of data to support their efficacy.
Study design: Randomized, controlled clinical trial with blinded outcome assessments.
Setting: A public teaching hospital in Brazil.
Synopsis: Seventy-five patients hospitalized with ADHF were randomized to receive aggressive fluid (800 mL/day) and sodium restriction (800 mg/day) or liberal intake (at least 2.5 L/day fluid, 3 to 5 g/day sodium). There were no significant between-group differences in diuretic administration. The primary outcomes of weight loss and clinical stability at three days were not significantly different between the groups. The heart-failure-specific readmission rate at 30 days was not significantly different between the groups. The aggressive restriction group had significantly worse thirst.
The study is limited by the small fraction of patients enrolled (9.2% of 813 screened) and homogenous population. Additional confirmatory trials likely are needed to change the standard of care, but this study demonstrated that aggressive fluid and sodium restriction does not benefit hospitalized patients with ADHF.
Bottom line: Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in hospitalized patients with ADHF does not result in improved short-term weight loss, clinical stability, or decreased 30-day readmission rate, but it does cause significantly worse thirst.
Citation: Aliti GB, Rabelo ER, Clausell N, et al. Aggressive fluid and sodium restriction in acute decompensated heart failure. JAMA Intern Med. 2013;173(12):1058-1064.
Lower Rate of Pacemaker, Defibrillator Device-Pocket Hematoma without Anticoagulation Interruption
Clinical question: Is it safer to place a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) while on therapeutic warfarin versus bridging with heparin/low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH)?
Background: Current guidelines recommend bridging with heparin or LMWH for patients at high risk for thromboembolic events around the time of pacemaker or ICD placement, but it is associated with significant risk of device-pocket hematoma. Some centers place pacemakers and ICDs without interruption of warfarin. However, there are limited data to support the safety of this approach.