In This Edition
Literature At A Glance
A guide to this month’s studies
- Prediction tool for neurological outcomes after in-hospital cardiac arrest
- Radiation exposure in integrated healthcare systems, 1996-2010
- Postoperative troponin predicts 30-day mortality
- Clinical prediction model of mortality in acute heart failure
- Indwelling pleural catheter vs. talc pleurodesis via chest tube
- Early surgery for high-risk, native-valve endocarditis patients
- Risk factors after ED visit for syncope
- Acute hyperglycemia in CAP patients
- Hospital delirium associated with cognitive decline, institutionalization, and death
- Seven-day ciprofloxacin effective against acute pyelonephritis
- Advance directives in community patients with heart failure
- Chlorhexidine bathing effective against CVC-associated bloodstream infections
- Simulation training improves lumbar puncture skills
- PCP referrals to hospitals and publicly reported data
- Medication reconciliation best practices
Prediction Tool Validated for Prognosticating Favorable Neurological Outcome after In-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
Clinical question: Does the Cardiac Arrest Survival Post Resuscitation In-Hospital (CASPRI) score accurately predict favorable neurological outcomes?
Background: Previous cardiac arrest prediction models have been focused on survival to discharge without consideration of neurological status and have not been translated into valid bedside prognostication tools. Neurologic prognosis can assist patients, families, and physicians in decisions about continued goals of care post-arrest.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Acute-care hospitals.
Synopsis: Using the Get with the Guidelines Resuscitation Registry, 551 hospitals identified 42,957 patients who were successfully resuscitated from an in-hospital cardiac arrest from January 2000 to October 2009. Researchers developed a simple prediction tool for favorable neurological outcomes (defined as “no” or “moderate” neurological disability) at discharge. The 11 predictors used to calculate the CASPRI score are age; time to defibrillation; pre-arrest neurological status; hospital location; duration of resuscitation; and pre-arrest comorbidities: mechanical ventilation, renal insufficiency, hepatic insufficiency, sepsis, malignancy,
Rates of favorable neurological outcome were similar between derivation cohort (24.6%) and validation cohort (24.5%). The model had excellent discrimination with a C score of 0.80. Probability of favorable neurological survival ranged from 70.7% in the top decile of patients (CASPRI <10) and 2.8% in bottom decile (CASPRI ≥ 28).
This tool is not generalizable to patients with out-of-hospital arrest or undergoing therapeutic hypothermia.
Bottom line: CASPRI is a simple bedside tool validated to estimate probability of favorable neurological outcome after in-hospital cardiac arrest.
Citation: Chan PS, Spertus JA, Krumholz HA, et al. A validated prediction tool for initial survivors in in-hospital cardiac arrest. Arch Intern Med. 2012;172(12):947-953.
Increased Use of Radiologic Imaging and Associated Radiation Exposure in Integrated Healthcare Systems, 1996-2010
Clinical question: How much has imaging utilization and associated radiation exposure increased over 15 years in integrated healthcare systems independent of financial incentives in a fee-for-service system?
Background: Use of diagnostic imaging has increased significantly within fee-for-service healthcare models. The associated radiation exposure has increased the risk of radiation-induced malignancies. Little is known about the pattern of imaging use in integrated healthcare systems without the financial incentives seen in other models of care.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Six integrated healthcare systems in the U.S.
Synopsis: The number of diagnostic imaging studies performed and estimated radiation exposure were determined from analysis of electronic medical records from member patients enrolled in health systems in the HMO Research Network from 1996 to 2010. Annual increases in use of advanced diagnostics were noted in CT (7.8% annual growth), MRI (10%), ultrasound (3.9%), and PET (57%) studies.