Background: The revised Geneva score is a validated and objective clinical decision rule, but has multiple variables with different weights. This can make the tool cumbersome and difficult to remember, and could lead to inaccurate calculations and misjudgments in patient care.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Four university-affiliated European hospitals.
Synopsis: Using data from two prior prospective trials involving patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE), this study showed re-analysis of these patients with a simplified, revised Geneva score, which gives only one point to each clinical factor, resulted in the same level of diagnostic accuracy. Specifically, data from 1,049 patients was used to construct a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis comparing the standardized and simplified Geneva score, which showed areas under the curve of 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.78) and 0.74 (0.70-0.77), respectively. Additionally, the safety of using this clinical tool to rule out PE was demonstrated when using both a three-level (low-intermediate probability) and a dichotomized scheme (PE unlikely) in combination with a negative D-dimer test.
The retrospective nature of the study was its major limitation. The authors suggest a prospective study to complete validation of the simplified, revised Geneva score.
Bottom line: With prospective analysis, it might be possible to further validate a simplified, revised Geneva score.
Citation: Klok FA, Mos ICM, Nijkeuter M, et al. Simplification of the revised Geneva score for assessing clinical probability of pulmonary embolism. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(19):2131-2136.
Is the rate of postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) inversely related to time after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent (DES)?
Background: The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recently released an advisory that included a recommendation to delay elective noncardiac surgery (NCS) for one year after DES placement. However, no large study addresses the timing of NCS after PCI with DES.
Study design: Retrospective observational study.
Setting: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
Synopsis: Looking at 520 patients who had NCS after DES at the Mayo Clinic, 5.4% experienced MACEs, but the rate of MACEs was not significantly associated with the time after stent placement to surgery (p=0.337). However, observed rates of MACEs were lower after one year. Elderly patients and those going for emergent surgery are at the highest risk for MACE. Bleeding complications were not associated with antiplatelet use.
Although this study does not provide a clear cutoff time for when it is safe to proceed to NCS after DES, it is somewhat reassuring to see the relatively small number of MACEs and the lack of bleeding complications associated with antiplatelet use. However, careful coordination between hospitalists, cardiologists, anesthesiologists, and surgeons is still needed when coordinating NCS after DES, especially in the elderly or during emergent situations.
Bottom line: While time to noncardiac surgery after drug-eluting stent placement is not associated with major adverse cardiac events, observed rates of events are lower after one year.
Citation: Rabbitts JA, Nuttall GA, Brown MJ, et al. Cardiac risk of non-cardiac surgery after percutaneous coronary intervention with drug-eluting stents. Anesthesiology.2008;109: 596-604.
Is the risk of MACEs and bleeding events for patients undergoing NCS related to the time interval between PCI with bare-metal stent?
Background: In order to prevent thrombosis of bare-metal stents (BMS) placed during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), antiplatelet therapy is used. This poses a risk of bleeding, if surgery is needed during the antiplatelet therapy. The American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommends delaying NCS for at least six weeks after PCI with BMS.