Bottom line: In patients with chronic kidney disease who present with non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes, anticoagulation with fondaparinux is associated with a significant reduction in the incidence of major bleeding as compared with enoxaparin.
- Fifth Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes Investigators. Comparison of fondaparinux and enoxaparin in acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2006;354(14):1464-1476.
- Fox KA, Bassand JP, Mehta SR, et al. Influence of renal function on the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux relative to enoxaparin in non ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes. Ann Intern Med. 2007;147(5):304-310.
What’s the Prognosis of Asymptomatic Patients with Suspected Coronary Artery Disease with Normal Multislice Angiogram?
Background: Several studies have demonstrated high sensitivity and negative predictive values for computed tomography (CT) coronary angiography.
Study design: Prospective, sequentially enrolled subjects.
Synopsis: A CT angiogram was given to 182 consecutive patients scheduled for conventional coronary angiography without acute coronary syndrome and insufficient coronary calcification to limit CT angiography. Researchers enrolled 141 because CT angiography was inconclusive or warranted actual conventional angiography.
These normal CT angiogram subjects were followed for a mean time of 14.7 months without loss to follow-up or any mortality. Five subsequently underwent conventional angiography eight to 11 months following CT, and three had clinically significant single-vessel disease. The other two had normal conventional angiograms. There was one myocardial infarction patient who, upon further review of CT, had previously unappreciated right-coronary-artery (RCA) disease. This prospective study demonstrated a 97.2% negative predictive value consistent with previous studies. Mortality, myocardial infarction, and subsequently identified coronary artery disease (CAD) are also consistent with previously published data for conventional angiography.
Bottom line: In this small, prospective study, multislice CT coronary angiography safely rules out suspected CAD.
Citation: Gilard M, Le Gal G, Cornily JC, et al. Midterm prognosis of patients with suspected coronary artery disease and normal multislice computer tomographic findings. Arch Intern Med. 2007;165(15):1687-1689.
Background: Two prior studies demonstrated that the use of epoetin reduced the number of red-cell transfusions in ICU patients without any other clinical benefits. There were possible subgroup differences between trauma and nontrauma patients. This study assessed a reduced dose of epoetin alfa and evaluated clinical outcomes and subgroup differences suggested by the previous studies.
Study design: Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Setting: 115 medical centers.
Synopsis: The study group of 1,460 patients underwent stratified randomization into trauma, surgical nontrauma, and medical nontrauma groups. There were no significant differences in transfusion requirements between the epoetin group, the placebo group, or in any subgroup. The mean pre-transfusion hemoglobin was the same in each group.
The epoetin group had a higher-than-baseline hemoglobin level at day 29 (1.6 versus 1.2 g/dL, p<0.001) and a higher absolute hemoglobin (11.2 versus 10.8 g/dL, p<0.001) than the placebo group. Mortality was lower in the epoetin group (8.5% versus 11.4%, p=0.02) and in the trauma subgroup (3.5% versus 6.6%, p=0.04). In two nontrauma groups, point estimates demonstrated similar lower mortality but were not statistically significant.
Thrombotic vascular events were higher in the epoetin group than the placebo group (16.5% versus 11.5%, p=0.008), but post-hoc analyses demonstrated that the effect was only observed in patients who had not received heparin at baseline. There were no other observed differences in length of stay or use of mechanical ventilation.
Bottom line: Epoetin alfa does not reduce red blood cell transfusions in ICU patients but may reduce mortality in trauma patients. Increased thrombotic events may be mitigated with the use of heparin.