Clinical question: What are the risk factors for mortality and functional decline following hip fracture among nursing home residents?
Background: Little is known about the survival and functional outcomes of nursing home residents who sustain hip fracture. Previous studies on hip fracture have either excluded nursing home residents or have been limited by small sample size.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries.
Synopsis: This retrospective study of 60,111 patients residing in nursing homes who were hospitalized for hip fracture between 2005 and 2010 found that 36.2% died within six months. Within this cohort, 53.5% of the patients who did not have total dependence prior to the hip fracture either died or became totally disabled within six months.
Specifically, patients older than 90 years (vs. those younger than 75 years: RR 1.42; P<0.001), with severe cognitive impairment (vs. intact cognition: RR 1.66, P<0.001), and receiving nonoperative management (vs. internal fixation: RR 1.48, P<0.001) had a higher combined risk of death or new total dependence in locomotion within six months of the hip fracture.
The findings suggest there is substantial mortality and functional decline following hip fracture among residents in nursing homes. A profound decrease in activities of daily living across the spectrum was observed. Interestingly, patients who underwent nonoperative treatment, even after risk adjustment, were more likely to have adverse outcomes, suggesting surgery should be considered, if consistent with the patient’s overall goal of care.
Bottom line: Significant mortality and functional decline occurs following hip fracture among nursing home patients. Patients with severe cognitive impairment, older age (more than 90 years), and receiving nonoperative treatment are more likely to die or develop complete dependence in locomotion.
Citation: Neuman MD, Silber JH, Magaziner JS, Passarella MA, Mehta S, Werner RM. Survival and functional outcomes after hip fracture among nursing home residents. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174(8):1273-1280.