Clinical question: What is the incidence of transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO) as it relates to specific characteristics of patients and transfusion situations?
Background: TACO is the second-leading cause of transfusion-related fatalities; however, the epidemiology of TACO is centered mostly on patients in the ICU, and the epidemiology for noncardiac surgical patients is not well characterized. This might result in suboptimal care delivery and unfavorable outcomes in peri-operative patients.
Study design: Retrospective cohort study.
Setting: Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn.
Synopsis: Using an electronic algorithm, 2,162 and 1,908 patients in 2004 and 2011, respectively, were screened for TACO if they received intra-operative transfusions during noncardiac surgery with general anesthesia. Analyses evaluated associations between patient and transfusion characteristics with TACO rates. Patients with TACO were compared to complication-free transfused counterparts.
The incidence of TACO increased significantly with the volume of blood product transfused, advanced age, and total intra-operative fluid balance. Mixed blood products had highest incidence of TACO, followed by fresh frozen plasma. Vascular, transplant, and thoracic surgeries had the highest, and obstetric and gynecologic surgeries the lowest TACO rates. Patients with TACO, compared with their counterparts, had a longer ICU and hospital length of stay.
The study population is derived from a single tertiary care referral center and confounded by referral bias, and, therefore, not easily generalizable. Also, results cannot be generalized to nongeneral anesthesia patients.
Although associations were noted between certain characteristics and the development of TACO, more robust and definitive evaluations of TACO risk factors are needed, as many rates were not adjusted for confounding factors.
Bottom line: Understanding characteristics of at-risk patients may facilitate improved decision making regarding transfusion strategies for peri-operative noncardiac surgical patients.
Citation: Clifford L, Jia Q, Yadav H, et al. Characterizing the epidemiology of perioperative transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Anesthesiology. 2015;122(1):21-28.