Patient Care

Hospital Management of Patients Presenting with ALTE: An Evidence-Based Approach


 

In a presentation on guidelines for ALTE, Jack Percelay, SHM representative to the AAP Subcommittee, provided further insight to the work that has been done for the clinical entity known as apparent life-threatening events (ALTE) since a consensus statement was put forward by the NIH in 1986. The original statement emphasized 4 possible features to constitute ALTE: apnea, color change, change in tone or gagging. The imprecise nature of the definition, along with both provider and caretaker anxiety related to the diagnosis, have lead to a cascade of diagnostic testing and treatments for what is a symptom complex, not a disease.

Subsequent work in the field has clarified that an ALTE is not a risk factor for SIDS. Of the myriad of etiologies that can cause an ALTE, many will have a readily identifiable etiology that a good history and physical exam will diagnose. Most other diseases, if not diagnosed at initial presentation, will become apparent subsequently without any significant consequences (for example epilepsy). Two diagnoses, which if missed, may have significant consequences include child abuse and a cardiac arrhythmia.

In an effort to synthesize new data along with expert opinion, the American Academy of Pediatrics has convened a Subcommittee on the Guideline for ALTE, lead by Joel Tieder, to develop a new practice guideline. This guideline is still in development with certain areas not ready for broad dissemination. The highlight of the new guideline will be a proposal for a name change for ALTEs. Dr Percelay reports the proposed new name would be BRUE (pronounced “brew”), Brief Resolved Unexplained Event. He anticipates further information to be published that will offer a framework to specify which infants to consider at low risk of recurrence versus higher risk for significant pathology. For those infants identified as low risk, the guideline will offer specific evaluation and treatment recommendations. An anticipated key point of the new guideline will be that a careful history and physical is the cornerstone of the initial evaluation and that in the absence of specific historical or exam findings, diagnostic testing of well-appearing infants is of low value.

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