Clinical question: Is the Caprini Risk Assessment Model for VTE risk valid in critically ill surgical patients?
Background: Critically ill surgical patients are at increased risk of developing VTE. Chemoprophylaxis decreases VTE risk, but benefits must be balanced against bleeding risk. Rapid and accurate risk stratification supports decisions about prophylaxis; however, data regarding appropriate risk stratification are limited.
Study design: Retrospective, cohort study.
Setting: Surgical ICU (SICU) at a single, U.S. academic medical center, 2007-2013.
Synopsis: Among 4,844 consecutive admissions, the in-hospital VTE rate was 7.5% (364). Using a previously validated, computer-generated, retrospective risk score based on the 2005 Caprini model, patients were most commonly at moderate risk for VTE upon ICU admission (32%). Fifteen percent (723) were extremely high risk. VTE incidence increased linearly with increasing Caprini scores. Data were abstracted from multiple electronic sources.
Younger age, recent sepsis or pneumonia, central venous access on ICU admission, personal VTE history, and operative procedure were significantly associated with inpatient VTE events. The proportion of patients who received chemoprophylaxis postoperatively was similar regardless of VTE risk. Patients at higher risk were more likely to receive chemoprophylaxis preoperatively.
Results from this retrospective, single-center study suggest that Caprini is a valid tool to predict inpatient VTE risk in this population. Inclusion of multiple risk factors may make calculation of this score prohibitive in other settings unless it can be computer generated.
Bottom line: Caprini risk scores accurately distinguish critically ill surgical patients at high risk of VTE from those at lower risk.
Citation: Obi AT, Pannucci CJ, Nackashi A, et al. Validation of the Caprini venous thromboembolism risk assessment model in critically ill surgical patients. JAMA Surg. 2015;150(10):941-948. doi:10.1001/jamasurg.2015.1841.