Clinical question: Does the use of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline shorten length of stay (LOS) in infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis?
Background: Acute bronchiolitis is a disease primarily of infants and young children, triggered by a viral infection that leads to variable inflammation, edema, and inspissated mucus in the lower airways. Although bronchiolitis is the most common cause of hospitalization in children under the age of two, few interventions have been shown to improve patient-level outcomes.
Hypertonic saline (generally 3%) has been one of the few interventions that has improved outcomes in some studies, leading the most recent American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) clinical practice guideline (CPG) to state that nebulized hypertonic saline may be considered for infants and children hospitalized for bronchiolitis. The studies cited in this CPG statement were heterogeneous, with many of them performed in Europe, where the LOS for bronchiolitis is generally longer than in the U.S. In addition, most of the studies administered hypertonic saline (HS) with a bronchodilator, confounding the outcomes with an intervention not recommended in the most recent bronchiolitis CPG.
Study design: Prospective, randomized controlled, double-blinded, parallel-group study.
Setting: Urban, tertiary-care, 136-bed children’s hospital.
Synopsis: Infants 4 points received a bronchodilator and were withdrawn from the study.
Of the 227 patients enrolled after application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 113 were randomized to receive HS and 114 to NS. Twenty patients in the HS group and 17 in the NS group discontinued intervention due to ICU transfer, provider choice to use albuterol, parental request, or protocol deviation, but patients were analyzed by intention-to-treat (ITT) assignments. No significant difference in LOS between the HS and NS groups was found, either by the traditional definition or the treatment-to-discharge order definition. No significant differences were found in secondary outcomes between the two groups, including readmission rates or clinical worsening. In addition, pre- to post-treatment RDAI score changes were not significantly different for HS versus NS.
Bottom line: Treating infants
Citation: Silver AH, Esteban-Cruciani N, Azzarone G, et al. 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in inpatient bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled trial. Pediatrics. 2015;136(6):1036-1043. TH
Dr. Chang is pediatric editor of The Hospitalist. He is associate clinical professor of medicine and pediatrics at the University of California at San Diego (UCSD) School of Medicine, and a hospitalist at both UCSD Medical Center and Rady Children’s Hospital. Send comments and questions to [email protected].