Patient Care

Chronic Kidney Disease Risk with Proton Pump Inhibitors


Clinical question: What is the association between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and incident chronic kidney disease (CKD)?

Background: Medication use may play a potential role in the increasing prevalence of CKD. PPIs are commonly prescribed, and several observational studies have linked their use with multiple adverse outcomes, including acute interstitial nephritis. The risk for CKD with PPI use has never been evaluated.

Study design: Prospective cohort study.

Setting: U.S., multi-center.

Synopsis: Among 10,482 patients in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (ARIC) with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of at least 60 mL/min/1.73 m2, PPI use was associated with a 1.50 times risk of incident CKD (95% CI, 1.14–1.96; P=0.003) and a 1.64 times risk of incident acute kidney injury (95% CI, 1.22–2.21; P<0.001) when compared to nonusers. PPI use continued to have an association with incident CKD even when compared directly with H2 receptor antagonist users (adjusted HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.01–1.91). Findings were replicated in a cohort of 248,751 patients in the Geisinger Health System, and in all analyses, PPI use was associated with CKD.

One limitation is that this was an observational study and causality between PPI use and CKD cannot be established.

Bottom line: PPIs are associated with risk for CKD, and in patients on therapy, its use should be reevaluated.

Citation: Lazarus B, Chen Y, Wilson FP, et al. Proton pump inhibitor use and the risk of chronic kidney disease. JAMA Intern Med. 2016;176(2):238-246.

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