Background: Patients with dementia often exhibit behavioral problems, such as agitation and psychosis. The American Psychiatric Association (APA) produced a consensus report on the use of antipsychotics in patients with dementia who also exhibit agitation/psychosis.
Study design: Expert panel review of multiple studies and consensus opinions of experienced clinicians.
Synopsis: While the use of antipsychotics to treat behavioral symptoms in patients with dementia is common, it is important to use these medications judiciously, especially in nonemergency cases. The APA recommends antipsychotics for treatment of agitation in these patients only when symptoms are severe or dangerous or cause significant distress to the patient.
When providers determine that benefits exceed risks, antipsychotic treatment should be initiated at a low dose and carefully titrated up to the minimum effective dose. If there is no significant response after a four-week trial of an adequate dose, tapering and withdrawing antipsychotic medication is recommended. Haloperidol should not be used as a first-line agent. The APA guidelines are not intended to apply to treatment in an urgent context, such as acute delirium.
Bottom line: The APA has provided practical guidelines to direct care of dementia patients. These guidelines are not intended to apply to individuals who are receiving antipsychotics in an urgent context or who receive antipsychotics for other disorders (e.g., chronic psychotic illness).
Citation: Reus VI, Fochtmann LJ, Eyler AE, et al. The American Psychiatric Association practice guidelines on the use of antipsychotics to treat agitation or psychosis in patients with dementia. Am J Psychiatry. 2016;173(5):543-546.
Colistin-Resistant E. coli in the U.S.
The presence of mcr-1, a plasmid-borne colistin resistance gene indicating the presence of a truly pan-drug-resistant bacteria, has been identified for the first time in the United States.
Citation: McGann P, Snesrud E, Maybank R, et al. Escherichia coli harboring mcr-1 and blaCTX-M on a novel IncF plasmid: first report of mcr-1 in the United States. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2016;60(7):4420-4421.