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    When are vasoactive agents indicated in acute heart failure?

    October 1, 2008

    Case A 72-year-old retired nurse with known nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy with an ejection fraction of approximately 20% and status-post cardiac resynchronization therapy presents to the emergency department with dyspnea with minimal activity, three-pillow orthopnea, and paroxysmal nocturnal dy