In the Literature


Perioperative Hyperglycemia Increases Risk of Poor Outcomes in Nondiabetics

Clinical question: How does perioperative hyperglycemia affect the risk of adverse events in diabetic patients compared to nondiabetic patients? Background: Perioperative hyperglycemia is associated with increased rates of infection, myocardial infarction, stroke, and death. Recent studies suggest that nondiabetics are more prone to hyperglycemia-related complications than diabetics. This study sought to analyze the effect and… [Read More]

Antibiotic Prophylaxis Might Prevent Recurrent UTIs

Reviewed by Pediatric Editor Mark Shen, MD, medical director of hospital medicine at Dell Children’s Medical Center, Austin, Texas. Clinical question: Does antibiotic prophylaxis prevent future episodes of urinary tract infections? Background: Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTI) in children might be associated with renal scarring and subsequent clinical consequences associated with long-term morbidity. Historically, antibiotic… [Read More]

Advanced Dementia Is a Terminal Illness with High Morbidity and Mortality

Clinical question: Does understanding the expected clinical course of advanced dementia influence end-of-life decisions by proxy decision-makers? Background: Advanced dementia is a leading cause of death in the United States, but the clinical course of advanced dementia has not been described in a rigorous, prospective manner. The lack of information might cause risk to be… [Read More]

Adding Basal Insulin to Oral Agents in Type 2 Diabetes Might Offer Best Glycemic Control

Clinical question: When added to oral diabetic agents, which insulin regimen (biphasic, prandial or basal) best achieves glycemic control in patients with Type 2 diabetes? Background: Most patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) require insulin when oral agents provide suboptimal glycemic control. Little is known about which insulin regimen is most effective. Study design:… [Read More]

Initiation of Dialysis Does Not Help Maintain Functional Status in Elderly

Clinical question: Is functional status in the elderly maintained over time after initiating long-term dialysis? Background: Quality-of-life maintenance often is used as a goal when initiating long-term dialysis in elderly patients with end-stage renal disease. More elderly patients are being offered long-term dialysis treatment. Little is known about the functional status of elderly patients on… [Read More]

Inhaled Corticosteroids Decrease Inflammation in Moderate to Severe COPD

Clinical question: Does long-term inhaled corticosteroid therapy, with and without long-acting beta-agonists, decrease airway inflammation and improve lung function in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? Background: Guideline-recommended treatment of COPD with inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting beta-agonists improves symptoms and exacerbation rates; little is known about the impact of these therapies… [Read More]

Resident Fatigue and Distress Contribute to Perceived Medical Errors

Clinical question: Do resident fatigue and distress contribute to medical errors? Background: In recent years, such measures as work-hour limitations have been implemented to decrease resident fatigue and, it is presumed, medical errors. However, few studies address the relationship between residents’ well-being and self-reported medical errors. Study design: Prospective six-year longitudinal cohort study. Setting: Single… [Read More]

Dabigatran Is Not Inferior to Warfarin in Atrial Fibrillation

Clinical question: Is dabigatran, an oral thrombin inhibitor, an effective and safe alternative to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation? Background: Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke among patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) but requires frequent laboratory monitoring. Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor given in fixed dosages without laboratory monitoring. Study design: Randomized,… [Read More]

Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Placement Decreases Heart Failure

Clinical question: Does cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with biventricular pacing decrease cardiac events in patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) and wide QRS complex but only mild cardiac symptoms? Background: In patients with severely reduced EF, implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to improve survival. Meanwhile, CRT decreases heart-failure-related hospitalizations for patients with advanced… [Read More]

Fluvastatin Improves Postoperative Cardiac Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Vascular Surgery

Clinical question: Does perioperative fluvastatin decrease adverse cardiac events after vascular surgery? Background: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who undergo vascular surgery are at high risk for postoperative cardiac events. Studies in nonsurgical populations have shown the beneficial effects of statin therapy on cardiac outcomes. However, no placebo-controlled trials have addressed the effect of statins… [Read More]