- Sepsis-3 with delta SOFA score of at least 2 and Quick SOFA (qSOFA) of at least 2 was best at predicting in-hospital death, ICU admission, and long ICU stay in ED.
- qSOFA was not helpful in the admitted ICU population. An increase of at least 2 points in SOFA score within 24 hours of admission to the ICU was the best predictor of in-hospital mortality and long ICU stays.
- SIRS has high sensitivity and low specificity. The Early Warning Score has accuracy similar to qSOFA.
- Understanding that there is no perfect answer regarding screening, but having a process is vital for each organization. This approach led to the Surviving Sepsis Campaign guideline: “Recommend health systems have a performance improvement program for sepsis including screening for high-risk patients.”
Key takeaways: Treatment
- Meta-analysis showed that specifically targeted, early goal–directed treatment (specifically, central venous pressure 8-12 mm Hg, central venous oxygen saturation greater than 70%, packed red blood cell inotropes used) did not show any improvement in 90-day mortality, and actually generated worse outcomes, including cirrhosis, as well as higher costs of care.
- Antibiotics: Though part of the 3-hour bundle, antibiotics are recommended to be administered within 1 hour.
- Intravenous fluids: Patients with sepsis-induced hypoperfusion need 30 mL/kg crystalloids. Normal saline and lactated ringer are preferred. Lactated ringer has the advantage over normal saline, with a reduced incidence of major adverse kidney events.
- Importance of bundle compliance: N.Y. study showed use of protocols cut mortality from 30.2% to 25.4%.
Refractory septic shock
- Adding hydrocortisone and fludrocortisone improved mortality at 28 days, helped patients get off vasopressors sooner, and ultimately resulted in less organ failure. But no difference in 90-day mortality.
- A study of vitamin C use in septic patients needs further studies to validate, as it only included 47 patients.
- Early renal replacement therapy showed no difference in mortality or length of stay.
Dr. Kritek’s presentation made a positive impact by helping to explain the reasoning behind the established and evolving best practices and guidelines for care of patients with sepsis and septic shock. Her approach will help hospitalists provide cost-effective care, by understanding which expensive interventions and practices do not make a difference in patient care.
Dr. Odeti is hospitalist medical director at Johnston Memorial Hospital in Abingdon, Va. JMH is part of Ballad Health, a health system operating 21 hospitals in northeast Tennessee and southwest Virginia.
3. Specifications Manual for National Hospital Inpatient Quality Measures Discharges 01-01-17 (1Q17) through 12-31-17 (4Q17).