Application of the data to our patient
Resumption of anticoagulation in our patient with ICH requires balancing the risk of hemorrhage expansion and recurrent ICH with the risk of thromboembolic disease.
Our patient is at higher risk of bleeding because of her advanced age, but adequate control of her blood pressure and nonlobar location of her ICH in the basal ganglia also may decrease her risk of recurrent ICH. Her high CHA2DS2-VASc score places her at high risk of thromboembolic event and stroke, making it more likely for reinitiation of anticoagulation to confer a mortality benefit.
Based on AHA guidelines,4 we should wait at least 4 weeks, or possibly wait until weeks 7-8 after ICH when the greatest benefit may be expected based on prediction models.11
It would likely be safe to resume anticoagulation 4-8 weeks after ICH in our patient.
Dr. Gibson, Dr. Restrepo, Dr. Sasidhara, and Dr. Manian are hospitalists at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston.
1. An SJ et al. Epidemiology, risk factors, and clinical features of intracerebral hemorrhage: An update..
2. Horstmann S et al. Intracerebral hemorrhage during anticoagulation with vitamin K antagonists: a consecutive observational study..
3. Rosand J et al. The effect of warfarin and intensity of anticoagulation on outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage..
4. Hemphill JC et al. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage..
5. Aguillar MI et al. Update in intracerebral hemorrhage..
6. Hill MD et al. Rate of stroke recurrence in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage..
7. Steiner T et al. European Stroke Organization (ESO) guidelines for the management of spontaneous cerebral hemorrhage..
8. Murthy SB et al. Restarting anticoagulation therapy after intracranial hemorrhage: A systematic review and meta-analysis..
9. Biffi A et al. Oral anticoagulation and functional outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage..
10. Witt DM. What to do after the bleed: Resuming anticoagulation after major bleeding..
11. Pennlert J et al. Optimal timing of anticoagulant treatment after intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation..
- Robust scientific data on when to resume anticoagulation after ICH does not exist.
- Retrospective studies have shown that anticoagulation resumption after 4-8 weeks decreases the risk of thromboembolic events, decreases mortality, and improves functional status following ICH with no significant change in the risk of its recurrence.
- Prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to explore risks/benefits of anticoagulation resumption and better define its optimal timing in relation to ICH.
Which of the following is false regarding ICH?
A. Lobar ICHs are usually associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy which are prone to bleeding.
B. Randomized, controlled studies have helped guide the decision as to when to resume anticoagulation in patients with ICH.
C. Current guidelines suggest deferring therapeutic anticoagulation for at least 4 weeks following ICH.
D. Resumption of anticoagulation after 4-8 weeks does not lead to increased risk of rebleeding in patients with prior ICH.
The false answer is B: Current recommendations regarding resumption of anticoagulation in patients with ICH are based solely on retrospective observational studies; there are no randomized, control trials to date.
A is true: In contrast to hypertensive vessel disease associated with deep ICH, lobar hemorrhages are usually associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which are more prone to bleeding.
C is true: The AHA/ASA has a class IIB recommendation to avoid anticoagulation for at least 4 weeks after ICH in patients without mechanical heart valves.
D is true: Several studies have shown that resumption of anticoagulation 4-8 weeks after ICH does not increase the risk of rebleeding.