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The Pros and Cons of Electronic Health Records

From: The Hospitalist, August 2013

Payments for demonstrating meaningful use of EHR technology can benefit eligible professionals, hospitals, but problems with upcoding, physician notes persist

by Carol Pohlig, BSN, RN, CPC, ACS

An electronic health record (EHR)—sometimes called an electronic medical record (EMR)—allows health-care providers to record patient information electronically instead of using paper records.1 It also has the capability to perform various tasks that can assist in health-care delivery while maintaining standards of practice. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act, enacted under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act), established a provision for incentive payments for eligible professionals (EPs), critical-access hospitals (CAHs), and eligible hospitals if they can demonstrate meaningful use of certified EHR technology:2

  • The use of a certified EHR in a meaningful manner (e.g. e-prescribing);
  • The use of certified EHR technology for electronic exchange of health information to improve quality of health care; and
  • The use of certified EHR technology to submit clinical quality and other measures.

Eligible professionals must satisfy 20 of 25 meaningful-use objectives (15 required core objectives and five objectives chosen from a list of 10 menu-set objectives).3 Eligible hospitals and CAHs must achieve 19 of 24 objectives (14 required core objectives and five objectives chosen from a list of 10 menu-set objectives).3

It seems that any program implementation with the potential to generate new or additional payment also has the potential to generate new or additional scrutiny of its application to ensure the generated payment is appropriate.5 Issues with EHR that recently have been highlighted include copy-and-paste, pulling notes forward, and upcoding based on volume instead of necessity.

Consider the Case

A patient is admitted to the hospital for pain, warmth, and swelling in the left lower extremity; r/o deep vein thrombosis (DVT) versus cellulitis. The patient’s history includes peripheral vascular disease (PVD), chronic renal insufficiency (CRI), and allergic rhinitis (AR). Testing confirms DVT, and the patient begins anticoagulation therapy. To achieve a therapeutic balance and prevent adverse reactions, the hospitalist orders INR monitoring.

On admission, the complexity of the patient’s condition may be considered high given the nature of the presenting problem.4 The hospitalist receives extensive credit for developing a care plan involving differential diagnoses with additional testing in anticipation of confirming a diagnosis. The patient’s presenting problem elevates the risk of morbidity/mortality, while the determined course of anticoagulation therapy places the patient at increased (i.e. “high”) risk for bleeding and requires intensive monitoring for toxicity. In this instance, 99223 may be warranted if the documentation requirements corresponding to this visit level have been satisfied.

As subsequent hospital days ensue, the complexity of the patient’s condition may not be as high. Even though the risk of anticoagulation remains high, the number of diagnoses and/or data ordered/reviewed may be less extensive than the initial encounter. Therefore, without any new or additional factors, the overall complexity of decision-making may be more appropriately categorized as moderate or low (e.g. 99232 or 99231, respectively).4

Do not fall victim to shortcuts that may falsely ease the workload of the overburdened physician. For example, the patient’s co-existing conditions of PVD, CRI, and AR likely were addressed during the initial encounter for DVT with inclusion in the plan of care. When using an electronic documentation system, it might be possible to copy the previously entered information from the initial encounter into the current encounter to save time. However, the previously entered information could include elements that do not need to be re-addressed during a subsequent encounter (e.g., AR) or yield information involving care for conditions that are being managed concurrently by another specialist (e.g. CRI being managed by the nephrologist).

Leaving the pasted information unaltered, without modification, can misrepresent the patient’s condition or the care provided by the hospitalist during the subsequent encounter.

Issues with EHR that recently have been highlighted include copy-and-paste, pulling notes forward, and upcoding based on volume instead of necessity.

Preventative Measures

Documentation should support the service provided on a given date, and the information included in the entry should reflect the content that was rendered and/or considered for assessment and management. Information that is pulled forward or copied and pasted from a previous entry should be modified to demonstrate updated content and nonoverlapping care with relevance for that date.

Do not use coding tools, or EHR “service calculators,” that override medical decision-making to determine the service level. Determining the service level for a particular CPT code category depends upon the key components of history, exam, and medical decision-making (MDM).4 For some code categories, each of the three key components must meet the documentation guidelines for the corresponding visit level (i.e. initial hospital care, initial observation care, and consultations). If all three components do not satisfy the requirements for a particular visit level, code selection is determined by the lowest component. For example, the physician must select 99221 when documenting a detailed history despite having also documented a comprehensive exam and high complexity decision-making. In other code categories, coding principles require that only two key components need to meet the documentation guidelines (i.e. subsequent hospital care and subsequent observation care) for code selection.

More specifically, code selection is determined by the second-lowest component. For example, the physician may appropriately select 99233 when only documenting a brief history after having also documented a detailed exam and high complexity decision-making. Based on this “two of three” stipulation, 99233 is acceptable. Service calculators that override MDM as one of the two supporting components in subsequent care services could generate 99233 for a service involving a detailed history and a detailed exam but only low complexity decision-making. Such coding practice can leave the hospitalist vulnerable to external inquiries involving medical necessity and upcoding. Despite this “two component” technicality with subsequent services (99231-99233 and 99224-99226), MDM always should be one of the two key components considered during subsequent visit level selection as it most clearly conveys the medical necessity of the encounter.

Potentially Inappropriate Payments for E/M Services

Per the fiscal 2013 Work Plan, “the Office of Inspector General (OIG) will assess the extent to which CMS made potentially inappropriate payments for E/M services and the consistency of E/M medical review determinations. They also will review multiple E/M services for the same providers and beneficiaries to identify electronic health records (EHR) documentation practices associated with potentially improper payments. Medicare contractors have noted an increased frequency of medical records with identical documentation across services. Medicare requires providers to select the code for the service based upon the content of the service and have documentation to support the level of service reported.”5

This investigation continues to thrive as EHR takes on a bigger role in physician practice. Although hospitalists likely are not eligible to receive individual incentive payments, because >90% of services are performed in a hospital, inpatient, or ED setting, the hospital may still qualify for this incentive. —CP

References

  1. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. The official web site for the Medicare and Medicaid electronic health records (EHR) incentive programs. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/index.html?redirect=/ehrincentiveprograms/. Accessed March 10, 2013.
  2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Frequently asked questions (FAQs). Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/FAQ.html. Accessed March 10, 2013.
  3. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Meaningful use. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services website. Available at: http://www.cms.gov/Regulations-and-Guidance/Legislation/EHRIncentivePrograms/Meaningful_Use.html. Accessed March 10, 2013.
  4. Abraham M, Ahlman J, Anderson C, Boudreau A, Connelly J. Current Procedural Terminology 2012 Professional Edition. Chicago: American Medical Association Press; 2011:13-17.
  5. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Inspector General work plan fiscal year 2013. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services website. Available at: http://oig.hhs.gov/reports-and-publications/archives/workplan/2013/Work-Plan-2013.pdf. Accessed March 11, 2013.

This copy is for your personal, noncommercial use only. No part of this article can be reproduced without the written permission of the publisher. Order presentation-ready copies for distribution to your colleagues, clients, or customers by contacting our reprints department at reprints@wiley.com. Copyright © 2009 Society of Hospital Medicine, administered by John Wiley & Sons Inc.

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