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Established Performance Metrics Help CMS Expand Its Value-Based Purchasing Program

From: The Hospitalist, August 2012

CMS is marching toward a value-based payment modifier program that will adjust physician reimbursement based on the relative quality and efficiency of care they provide.

by Christopher Guadagnino, PhD

Thomas B. Valuck, MD, JD We need to be focused more on measures that encourage joint responsibility and cooperation among providers, and are important to patients across hospital, post-acute, and ambulatory settings.

—Thomas B. Valuck, MD, JD, senior vice president of strategic partnerships, National Quality Forum, former CMS adviser

2012 PQRS Performance Measures for Hospitalists

Heart failure

  • ACE inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) prescribed for left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD)

Coronary artery disease

  • Antiplatelet therapy prescribed at discharge
  • Beta-blockers prescribed for patients with prior myocardial infarction

Stroke

  • DVT prophylaxis
  • Discharged on antiplatelet therapy
  • Anticoagulation for atrial fibrillation
  • Screening for dysphagia
  • Consideration of rehab
  • Advance care plan of patients age 65 and older
  • Follow central venous catheter insertion protocol

No longer content to be a passive purchaser of healthcare services, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) is becoming a savvier shopper, holding providers increasingly accountable for the quality and efficiency of the care they deliver. With its value-based purchasing (VPB) program for hospitals already in place, now it’s the physicians’ turn.

CMS is marching toward a value-based payment modifier program that will adjust physician reimbursement based on the relative quality and efficiency of care that physicians provide to Medicare fee-for-service patients. The program will begin January 2015 and will extend to all physicians in 2017. Like the hospital VBP program, it will be budget-neutral—meaning that payment will increase for some physicians but decrease for others.

The coming months mark a pivotal period for physicians as CMS tweaks its accountability apparatus in ways that will determine how reimbursement will rise and fall, for whom, and for what.

Menu of Metrics

In crafting the payment modifier program, CMS can tap performance metrics from several of its existing programs, including the Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), the soon-to-be-expanded Physician Compare website (www.medicare.gov/find-a-doctor/provider-search.aspx), and the Physician Feedback Program.

“These agendas are part of a continuum, and of equal importance, in the evolution toward physician value-based purchasing,” says Patrick J. Torcson, MD, MMM, FACP, SFHM, chair of SHM’s Performance Measurement and Reporting Committee, and director of hospital medicine at St. Tammany Parish Hospital in Covington, La.

PQRS began as a voluntary “pay for reporting” system that gave physicians a modest financial bonus (currently 0.5% of allowable Medicare charges) for submitting quality data (left). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) has since authorized CMS to penalize physicians who do not participate—1.5% of allowable Medicare charges beginning in 2015, and 2% in 2016.

The Physician Compare website, launched at the end of 2010, currently contains such rudimentary information as education, gender, and whether a physician is enrolled in Medicare and satisfactorily reports data to the PQRS. But as of January, the site will begin reporting some PQRS data, as well as other metrics.

CMS’ Physician Feedback Program provides quality and cost information to physicians in an effort to encourage them to improve the care they provide and its efficiency. CMS recently combined the program with its value-based payment modifier program as it moves toward physician reimbursement that it says will reward “value rather than volume.” The program, currently being piloted in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas, and Missouri, issues to physicians confidential quality and resource use reports (QRURs) that compare their performance to peer groups in similar specialties by tracking PQRS results, Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures, and per-capita cost data and preventable hospital admission rates for various medical conditions. CMS will roll out the program nationwide next year.

Metrics Lack Relevance

Developing performance measures that capture the most relevant activities of physicians across many different specialties with equal validity is notoriously difficult—something that CMS acknowledges.1

Assigning the right patient to the right physician (i.e. figuring out who contributed what care, in what proportion, to which patient) also is fraught with complications, especially in the inpatient care setting, where a patient is likely to see many different physicians during a hospitalization.

SHM president Shaun Frost, MD, SFHM, highlighted these challenges in a letter sent in May to acting CMS administrator Marilyn B. Tavenner in which he pointed to dramatic data deficiencies in the initial round of QRURs sent to Physician Feedback Program participants that included hospitalists in Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas and Missouri. Because hospitalists were categorized as general internal-medicine physicians in the reports, their per-capita cost of care was dramatically higher (73% higher, in one case study) than the average cost of all internal-medicine physicians. No allowance was made for distinguishing the outpatient-oriented practice of a general internist from the inherently more expensive inpatient-focused hospitalist practice.

In the case study reviewed by SHM, the hospitalist’s patients saw, on average, 28 different physicians over the course of a year, during which the hospitalist contributed to the care of many patients but did not direct the care of any one of them—facts that clearly highlight the difficulty of assigning responsibility and accountability for a patient’s care when comparing physician performance.

“Based on the measurement used in the QRUR, it seems likely that a hospitalist would be severely disadvantaged with the introduction of a value-based modifier based on the present QRUR methodology,” Dr. Frost wrote.

SHM is similarly critical of the PQRS measures, which Dr. Torcson says lack relevance to hospitalist practices. “We want to be defined as HM physicians with our own unique measures of quality and cost,” he says. “Our results will look very different from those of an internist with a primarily outpatient practice.”

Dr. Torcson notes that SHM is an active participant in providing feedback during CMS rule proposals and has offered to work with the CMS on further refining the measures. For example, SHM proposed adding additional measures related to care transitions, given their particular relevance to hospitalist practices.

Rule-Changing Reform

The disruptive innovation of CMS’ healthcare reform agenda might wind up being a game-changer that dramatically affects the contours of all provider performance reporting and incentive systems, redefining the issues of physician accountability and patient assignment.

“We’re going to need to figure out how to restructure our measurement systems to match our evolving healthcare delivery and payment systems,” says Thomas B. Valuck, MD, JD, senior vice president of strategic partnerships for the National Quality Forum and former CMS adviser to the VBP program. Healthcare quality reporting should focus more on measures that cut across care contexts and assess whether the care provided truly made a difference for patients—metrics such as health improvement, return to functional status, level of patient involvement in the management of their care, provider team coordination, and other patient needs and preferences, Dr. Valuck believes.

“We need to be focused more on measures that encourage joint responsibility and cooperation among providers, and are important to patients across hospital, post-acute, and ambulatory settings, rather than those that are compartmentalized to one setting or relevant only to specific diseases or subspecialties,” Dr. Valuck says.

Such measure sets, while still retaining some disease- and physician-specific metrics, ideally would be complementary with families of related measures at the community, state, and national levels, Dr. Valuck says. “Such a multidimensional framework can begin to tell a meaningful story about what’s happening to the patient, and how well our system is delivering the right care,” he adds.

Dr. Torcson says HM has a pioneering role to play in this evolution, and he notes that SHM has proposed that CMS harmonize measures that align hospital-based physician activities (e.g. hospital medicine, emergency medicine, anesthesia, radiology) with hospital-level performance agendas so that physicians practicing together in the hospital setting can report on measures that are relevant to both.

Christopher Guadagnino is a freelance medical writer in Philadelphia.

Reference

  1. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Physician Quality Reporting System Town Hall Meeting. Available at: http://www.usqualitymeasures.org/shared/content/C4M_PQRS_transcript.pdf. Accessed July 3, 2012.

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