It’s been one year since the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education’s (ACGME) most recent residency program regulations took effect, updating standards put into place in 2003. The regulations are the latest manifestation of an ongoing challenge in medical training: how to strike the right balance of optimal clinical training with patient safety, resident well-being, and other concerns.
Clearly the most controversial change in the latest regulations is the restriction of first-year residents to a work shift of no more than 16 hours and older residents to 24 hours, with an additional four hours to manage transitions in care (previously, 30-hour shifts were permitted for all residents). ACGME applied the 16-hour restriction after extensive discussions with members of an Institute of Medicine committee that drafted a report at the request of Congress that explored the dangers to patient care of sleep-deprived caregivers. The IOM report argued that revisions to medical residents’ workloads and duty-hours were necessary to better protect patients against fatigue-related errors and to ensure that residents get the best educational experience.1
This month, the ACGME begins its annual reviews of institutions to gauge the impact of the new regulations. While few expect the ACGME to find decisive answers regarding optimal work-hour regulations for residents, the 16-hour rule has both its opponents and supporters. On balance, HM appears to be well-positioned to benefit from the changes, having been given yet another opportunity to demonstrate value by helping their institutions weather the changes, enhance the residency training experience, and support the patient safety imperative.
Is 16 the Magic Number?
In defending the new rules last year, ACGME CEO Thomas J. Nasca, MD, acknowledged that the evidence linking long duty-hours and patient safety is mixed, while also explaining that another part of the rationale for limiting shifts for the youngest residents was to ease them into the profession. Older residents, he said, must be taught to recognize and manage the fatigue they will encounter regularly in their actual clinical practice, where hours are not regulated.
“It makes sense how ACGME has structured this—giving trainees the chance to learn in a more measured way, while recognizing that more experienced residents have more mature judgment,” says Daniel D. Dressler, MD, MSc, SFHM, FACP, hospital medicine associate division director for education, and associate program director for the J. Willis Hurst Internal Medicine Residency Program at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta. “I believe it’s an overall positive move, in terms of morale and work/life balance.”